Abstract

A continuous wave (CW) quantum cascade laser (QCL) based absorption sensor system was demonstrated and developed for simultaneous detection of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O). A 7.73-µm CW QCL with its wavelength scanned over a spectral range of 1296.9-1297.6 cm−1 was used to simultaneously target three neighboring strong absorption lines, N2O at 1297.05 cm−1, CH4 at 1297.486 cm−1, and H2O at 1297.184 cm−1. An astigmatic multipass Herriott cell with a 76-m path length was utilized for laser based gas absorption spectroscopy at an optimum pressure of 100 Torr. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection was employed for data processing. Minimum detection limits (MDLs) of 1.7 ppb for N2O, 8.5 ppb for CH4, and 11 ppm for H2O were achieved with a 2-s integration time for individual gas detection. This single QCL based multi-gas detection system possesses applications in environmental monitoring and breath analysis.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O’Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin, “Comparisons of continuous atmospheric CH4, CO2 and N2O measurements - results from a travelling instrument campaign at Mace Head,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 8403–8418 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric CH₄ and N₂O measurements near Greater Houston area landfills using a QCL-based QEPAS sensor system during DISCOVER-AQ 2013,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 957–960 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Castillo, I. Sydoryk, B. Gross, and F. Moshary, “Ambient detection of CH4 and N2O by Quantum Cascade Laser,” Proc. SPIE 8718, 87180J (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of mid-infrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. L. Bjorneberg, A. B. Leytem, D. T. Westermann, P. R. Griffiths, L. Shao, and M. J. Pollard, “Measurement of atmospheric ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide at a concentrated dairy production facility in Southern Idaho using open-path FTIR spectrometry,” Trans. ASABE 52(5), 1749–1756 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B 80(1), 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

F. A. Smith, S. Elliott, D. R. Blake, and F. S. Rowland, “Spatiotemporal variation of methane and other trace hydrocarbon concentration in the Valley of Mexico,” Environ. Sci. Policy 5(6), 449–461 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aellen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakhirkin, Y.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

G. Wysocki, Y. A. Bakhirkin, S. So, F. K. Tittel, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and M. P. Fraser, “Dual interband cascade laser based trace-gas sensor for environmental monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8202–8210 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B 80(1), 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bjorneberg, D. L.

D. L. Bjorneberg, A. B. Leytem, D. T. Westermann, P. R. Griffiths, L. Shao, and M. J. Pollard, “Measurement of atmospheric ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide at a concentrated dairy production facility in Southern Idaho using open-path FTIR spectrometry,” Trans. ASABE 52(5), 1749–1756 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blake, D. R.

F. A. Smith, S. Elliott, D. R. Blake, and F. S. Rowland, “Spatiotemporal variation of methane and other trace hydrocarbon concentration in the Valley of Mexico,” Environ. Sci. Policy 5(6), 449–461 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Butler, J. H.

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castillo, P. C.

P. C. Castillo, I. Sydoryk, B. Gross, and F. Moshary, “Ambient detection of CH4 and N2O by Quantum Cascade Laser,” Proc. SPIE 8718, 87180J (2013).
[Crossref]

Chakir, A.

I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

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I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
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M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
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J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Hill, C. J.

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Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric CH₄ and N₂O measurements near Greater Houston area landfills using a QCL-based QEPAS sensor system during DISCOVER-AQ 2013,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 957–960 (2014).
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M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
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W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
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I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
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Jordan, A.

S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O’Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin, “Comparisons of continuous atmospheric CH4, CO2 and N2O measurements - results from a travelling instrument campaign at Mace Head,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 8403–8418 (2014).
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J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
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Khan, M. A.

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Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
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Kosterev, A. A.

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
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A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B 80(1), 133–138 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Levin, I.

S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O’Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin, “Comparisons of continuous atmospheric CH4, CO2 and N2O measurements - results from a travelling instrument campaign at Mace Head,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 8403–8418 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lewicki, R.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
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Leytem, A. B.

D. L. Bjorneberg, A. B. Leytem, D. T. Westermann, P. R. Griffiths, L. Shao, and M. J. Pollard, “Measurement of atmospheric ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide at a concentrated dairy production facility in Southern Idaho using open-path FTIR spectrometry,” Trans. ASABE 52(5), 1749–1756 (2009).
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Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Mappé, I.

I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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McManus, B.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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McManus, J. B.

Melchior, H.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
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Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Miller, D. J.

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Moshary, F.

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Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Patimisco, P.

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
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Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Pollard, M. J.

D. L. Bjorneberg, A. B. Leytem, D. T. Westermann, P. R. Griffiths, L. Shao, and M. J. Pollard, “Measurement of atmospheric ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide at a concentrated dairy production facility in Southern Idaho using open-path FTIR spectrometry,” Trans. ASABE 52(5), 1749–1756 (2009).
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Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Ren, W.

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W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
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M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric CH₄ and N₂O measurements near Greater Houston area landfills using a QCL-based QEPAS sensor system during DISCOVER-AQ 2013,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 957–960 (2014).
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Rinsland, C. P.

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Risby, T. H.

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
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T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of mid-infrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
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Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Roth, E.

I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
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Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Sanchez, N. P.

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
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Schwartz, T. B.

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
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Shao, L.

D. L. Bjorneberg, A. B. Leytem, D. T. Westermann, P. R. Griffiths, L. Shao, and M. J. Pollard, “Measurement of atmospheric ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide at a concentrated dairy production facility in Southern Idaho using open-path FTIR spectrometry,” Trans. ASABE 52(5), 1749–1756 (2009).
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Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Sirtori, C.

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Sivco, D. L.

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Smith, F. A.

F. A. Smith, S. Elliott, D. R. Blake, and F. S. Rowland, “Spatiotemporal variation of methane and other trace hydrocarbon concentration in the Valley of Mexico,” Environ. Sci. Policy 5(6), 449–461 (2002).
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Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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So, S.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
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G. Wysocki, Y. A. Bakhirkin, S. So, F. K. Tittel, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and M. P. Fraser, “Dual interband cascade laser based trace-gas sensor for environmental monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8202–8210 (2007).
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Solga, S.

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
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Spagnolo, V.

Spain, T. G.

S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O’Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin, “Comparisons of continuous atmospheric CH4, CO2 and N2O measurements - results from a travelling instrument campaign at Mace Head,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 8403–8418 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stefanski, P.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sydoryk, I.

P. C. Castillo, I. Sydoryk, B. Gross, and F. Moshary, “Ambient detection of CH4 and N2O by Quantum Cascade Laser,” Proc. SPIE 8718, 87180J (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, L.

Tarka, J.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thomas, X.

I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomazy, D. M.

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric CH₄ and N₂O measurements near Greater Houston area landfills using a QCL-based QEPAS sensor system during DISCOVER-AQ 2013,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 957–960 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of mid-infrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, Y. A. Bakhirkin, S. So, F. K. Tittel, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and M. P. Fraser, “Dual interband cascade laser based trace-gas sensor for environmental monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8202–8210 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B 80(1), 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Urbanski, S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vardag, S. N.

S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O’Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin, “Comparisons of continuous atmospheric CH4, CO2 and N2O measurements - results from a travelling instrument campaign at Mace Head,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 8403–8418 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wastine, B.

S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O’Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin, “Comparisons of continuous atmospheric CH4, CO2 and N2O measurements - results from a travelling instrument campaign at Mace Head,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 8403–8418 (2014).
[Crossref]

Westermann, D. T.

D. L. Bjorneberg, A. B. Leytem, D. T. Westermann, P. R. Griffiths, L. Shao, and M. J. Pollard, “Measurement of atmospheric ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide at a concentrated dairy production facility in Southern Idaho using open-path FTIR spectrometry,” Trans. ASABE 52(5), 1749–1756 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, Y. A. Bakhirkin, S. So, F. K. Tittel, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and M. P. Fraser, “Dual interband cascade laser based trace-gas sensor for environmental monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8202–8210 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R. Q.

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3336–3348 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zondlo, M. A.

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B 80(1), 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O’Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin, “Comparisons of continuous atmospheric CH4, CO2 and N2O measurements - results from a travelling instrument campaign at Mace Head,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 8403–8418 (2014).
[Crossref]

Environ. Sci. Policy (1)

F. A. Smith, S. Elliott, D. R. Blake, and F. S. Rowland, “Spatiotemporal variation of methane and other trace hydrocarbon concentration in the Valley of Mexico,” Environ. Sci. Policy 5(6), 449–461 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of mid-infrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50K–2 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. C. Castillo, I. Sydoryk, B. Gross, and F. Moshary, “Ambient detection of CH4 and N2O by Quantum Cascade Laser,” Proc. SPIE 8718, 87180J (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. Mappé, L. Joly, G. Durry, X. Thomas, T. Decarpenterie, J. Cousin, N. Dumelie, E. Roth, A. Chakir, and P. G. Grillon, “A quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of atmospheric N2O and CH4 emission fluxes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 023103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. ASABE (1)

D. L. Bjorneberg, A. B. Leytem, D. T. Westermann, P. R. Griffiths, L. Shao, and M. J. Pollard, “Measurement of atmospheric ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide at a concentrated dairy production facility in Southern Idaho using open-path FTIR spectrometry,” Trans. ASABE 52(5), 1749–1756 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Zahniser, “Nitrous Oxide Monitors”, http://www.aerodyne.com/products/nitrous-oxide-monitors

J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers, (Oxford University Press, UK, 2013).

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2013).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption lines of N2O, CH4, and H2O for a wide spectral range from 3 to 8.5 µm as vertical drop lines; (b) Absorption spectra of N2O, CH4, and H2O in a narrow range from 1296.95 cm−1 to 1297.6 cm−1 for specific concentrations and a 1-m path length at a pressure of 50 Torr. N2O, CH4, and H2O lines are shown as blue, red, and green, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured results for 7.73-µm CW DFB-QCL at different operating temperatures and injection currents. (a) QCL power response curves; (b) emitted wavenumber curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of a three-gas sensor system based on a single CW DFB QCL. M: mirror; PcL: plano-convex lens; DAQ: data acquisition; PC: personal computer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time response of (a) N2O, (b) CH4, and (c) H2O detection with pure N2 flushing at different gas flow rate. SCCM: standard cubic centimeters per minute.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Pressure and modulation depth optimization for N2O detection; (b) Sensor sensitivity calibration for N2O. The inset of Fig. 5(b) shows the average signal for each N2O concentration level and its linear fit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured N2O concentration by passing pure N2 into the multipass cell; (b) Allan deviation plot for the data shown in Fig. 6(a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Pressure and modulation depth optimization for CH4 detection; (b) CH4 concentration response for the sensor system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measured CH4 concentrations as pure N2 flows over the multipass cell; (b) Allan deviation plot for the data in Fig. 8(a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) H2O measurements during a 800 s period; (b) Allan deviation analysis.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Direct output of the mid-infrared detector, and (b) 2f signal of the sensor system for simultaneous three gas species (N2O, CH4, and H2O) detection at a pressure of 100 Torr and modulation depth of 4 mA.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Simultaneously measured concentrations of N2O, CH4, and H2O in laboratory ambient air; (b) Allan deviation of these three gases within constant concentration periods.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Single CW QCL based N2O, CH4 and H2O sensor system; (b) Measurement results of simultaneous three gas concentrations monitoring in the atmosphere for a 6 hour time duration.

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