Abstract

We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams’ topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  31. W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129–135 (2004).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  37. W. Buono, L. Moraes, J. Huguenin, C. Souza, and A. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16, 093041 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  39. R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Higher order optical vortices and formation of speckles,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4364–4367 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

A. M. Akulshin, R. J. Mclean, E. E. Mikhailov, and I. Novikova, “Distinguishing nonlinear processes in atomic media via orbital angular momentum transfer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1109–1112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, X.-T. Gan, P. Ju, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-L. Zhao, “Measuring topological charges of optical vortices with multi-singularity using a cylindrical lens,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Strohaber, J. Abul, F. Zhu, A. A. Kolomenskii, and H. A. Schuessler, “Cascade Raman sideband generation and orbital angular momentum relations for paraxial beam modes,” Opt. Express 23, 22463–22476 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (6)

M. J. Padgett, “Light in a twist: optical angular momentum,” Proc. SPIE 8637, 863702 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377, 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Roger, J. J. Heitz, E. M. Wright, and D. Faccio, “Non-collinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3491 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhi, K. Wang, X. Hua, H. Schuessler, J. Strohaber, and A. V. Sokolov, “Generation of femtosecond optical vortices by molecular modulation in a Raman-active crystal,” Opt. Express 21, 27750–27758 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Strohaber, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, A. A. Kolomenskii, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Coherent transfer of optical orbital angular momentum in multi-order Raman sideband generation,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3411–3413 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Adaptive correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop system with phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 285, 859–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

F. M. Fazal and S. M. Block, “Optical tweezers study life under tension,” Nature Phot. 5, 318–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3, 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Lenzini, S. Residori, F. Arecchi, and U. Bortolozzo, “Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, and G. A. Swartzlander, “Optical vortex coronagraph,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3308–3310 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. Uiterwaal, “Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 7599–7608 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Freespace information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12, 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Orbital angular momentum of photons in noncollinear parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 228, 155–160 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066613 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. A. Swartzlander, “Peering into darkness with a vortex spatial filter,” Opt. Lett. 26, 497–499 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119–3122 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1974 (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 336, 165–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abul, J.

Akulshin, A. M.

Allen, L.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amaral, A. M.

Andrews, L. C.

Arecchi, F.

F. Lenzini, S. Residori, F. Arecchi, and U. Bortolozzo, “Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Banerji, J.

S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Higher order optical vortices and formation of speckles,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4364–4367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377, 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

Berry, M. V.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 336, 165–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

Block, S. M.

F. M. Fazal and S. M. Block, “Optical tweezers study life under tension,” Nature Phot. 5, 318–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bortolozzo, U.

F. Lenzini, S. Residori, F. Arecchi, and U. Bortolozzo, “Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buono, W.

W. Buono, L. Moraes, J. Huguenin, C. Souza, and A. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16, 093041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burzo, A. M.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

H. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Adaptive correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop system with phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 285, 859–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

Courtial, J.

Crégut, O.

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Arajo, C. B.

Delong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dudley, A.

Engel, E.

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066613 (2001).
[Crossref]

Faccio, D.

T. Roger, J. J. Heitz, E. M. Wright, and D. Faccio, “Non-collinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3491 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falco-Filho, E. L.

Fazal, F. M.

F. M. Fazal and S. M. Block, “Optical tweezers study life under tension,” Nature Phot. 5, 318–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Foo, G.

Forbes, A.

Franke-Arnold, S.

Friese, M. E. J.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallart, M.

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.-T.

Y. Peng, X.-T. Gan, P. Ju, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-L. Zhao, “Measuring topological charges of optical vortices with multi-singularity using a cylindrical lens,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Gilliot, P.

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Golowich, S.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, C.-S.

Harris, M.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119–3122 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heitz, J. J.

T. Roger, J. J. Heitz, E. M. Wright, and D. Faccio, “Non-collinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3491 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066613 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hill, C. A.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119–3122 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hönerlage, B.

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hua, X.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huguenin, J.

W. Buono, L. Moraes, J. Huguenin, C. Souza, and A. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16, 093041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jia, H.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ju, P.

Y. Peng, X.-T. Gan, P. Ju, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-L. Zhao, “Measuring topological charges of optical vortices with multi-singularity using a cylindrical lens,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kheng, K.

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khilo, N.

Khoury, A.

W. Buono, L. Moraes, J. Huguenin, C. Souza, and A. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16, 093041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066613 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

Kong, D.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

Lee, W. M.

W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lenzini, F.

F. Lenzini, S. Residori, F. Arecchi, and U. Bortolozzo, “Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, J.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

H. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Adaptive correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop system with phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 285, 859–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, L.-L.

Ma, H.

H. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Adaptive correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop system with phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 285, 859–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariyenko, I.

Mclean, R. J.

Mikhailov, E. E.

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Orbital angular momentum of photons in noncollinear parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 228, 155–160 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moraes, L.

W. Buono, L. Moraes, J. Huguenin, C. Souza, and A. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16, 093041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nie, Y.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Novikova, I.

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 336, 165–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Palacios, D. M.

Pas’ko, V.

Paulus, G. G.

Peng, Y.

Y. Peng, X.-T. Gan, P. Ju, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-L. Zhao, “Measuring topological charges of optical vortices with multi-singularity using a cylindrical lens,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Persuy, D.

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phillips, R. L.

Prabhakar, S.

Qi, J.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reddy, S. G.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Residori, S.

F. Lenzini, S. Residori, F. Arecchi, and U. Bortolozzo, “Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roger, T.

T. Roger, J. J. Heitz, E. M. Wright, and D. Faccio, “Non-collinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3491 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H.

Schuessler, H. A.

Shverdin, M. Y.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Simpson, N. B.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Higher order optical vortices and formation of speckles,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4364–4367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377, 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A. V.

M. Zhi, K. Wang, X. Hua, H. Schuessler, J. Strohaber, and A. V. Sokolov, “Generation of femtosecond optical vortices by molecular modulation in a Raman-active crystal,” Opt. Express 21, 27750–27758 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Strohaber, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, A. A. Kolomenskii, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Coherent transfer of optical orbital angular momentum in multi-order Raman sideband generation,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3411–3413 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two-color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Souza, C.

W. Buono, L. Moraes, J. Huguenin, C. Souza, and A. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16, 093041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Staliunas, K.

M. V. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, Optical Vortices Horizons in World Physics Volume 228 (Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 1999).

Strohaber, J.

Sun, W.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tan, J.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tapster, P. R.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119–3122 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Orbital angular momentum of photons in noncollinear parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 228, 155–160 (2003).
[Crossref]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Orbital angular momentum of photons in noncollinear parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 228, 155–160 (2003).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uiterwaal, C.

Vaity, P.

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377, 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vasilyeu, R.

Vasnetsov, M.

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. V. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, Optical Vortices Horizons in World Physics Volume 228 (Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 1999).

Vaughan, J. M.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119–3122 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, D. R.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.-T.

Wang, K.

Wang, X.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-D.

Y. Peng, X.-T. Gan, P. Ju, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-L. Zhao, “Measuring topological charges of optical vortices with multi-singularity using a cylindrical lens,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

T. Roger, J. J. Heitz, E. M. Wright, and D. Faccio, “Non-collinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3491 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

H. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Adaptive correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop system with phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 285, 859–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

H. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Adaptive correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop system with phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 285, 859–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, A. M.

Yavuz, D. D.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yin, G. Y.

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. C.

W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.-L.

Y. Peng, X.-T. Gan, P. Ju, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-L. Zhao, “Measuring topological charges of optical vortices with multi-singularity using a cylindrical lens,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhi, M.

Zhu, F.

Ziegler, M.

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chinese Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Peng, X.-T. Gan, P. Ju, Y.-D. Wang, and J.-L. Zhao, “Measuring topological charges of optical vortices with multi-singularity using a cylindrical lens,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. V. Sokolov, M. Y. Shverdin, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, A. M. Burzo, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and control of femtosecond pulses by molecular modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 285–304 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. (1)

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 5, R1–R26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Phot. (1)

F. M. Fazal and S. M. Block, “Optical tweezers study life under tension,” Nature Phot. 5, 318–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

W. Buono, L. Moraes, J. Huguenin, C. Souza, and A. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16, 093041 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses,” New J. Phys. 10, 025032 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Orbital angular momentum of photons in noncollinear parametric downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 228, 155–160 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, Z. Liu, H. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Adaptive correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop system with phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 285, 859–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. M. Lee, X. C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Liao, X. Wang, W. Sun, Y. Tan, D. Kong, Y. Nie, J. Qi, H. Jia, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Tan, and X. Li, “Analysis of femtosecond optical vortex beam generated by direct wave-front modulation,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377, 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119–3122 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lenzini, S. Residori, F. Arecchi, and U. Bortolozzo, “Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. Persuy, M. Ziegler, O. Crégut, K. Kheng, M. Gallart, B. Hönerlage, and P. Gilliot, “Four-wave mixing in quantum wells using femtosecond pulses with Laguerre-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066613 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 336, 165–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. J. Padgett, “Light in a twist: optical angular momentum,” Proc. SPIE 8637, 863702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Roger, J. J. Heitz, E. M. Wright, and D. Faccio, “Non-collinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3491 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. V. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, Optical Vortices Horizons in World Physics Volume 228 (Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Production and measurement of optical vortices. (a) Computer-generated phase mask applied to the SLM. (b) Donut-shaped beam profile (taken approximately 76 cm after the SLM) resulting from Gaussian beam reflection off of the SLM. (c) Schematic of an astigmatic focusing method for TC measurement. (d) Resultant intensity distribution in the focal plane. Data in (a), (b), and (d) are shown for a vortex beam with TC = 3, hence we see 4 distinguishable spots in part (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Our experimental setup. Dashed lines correspond to Stokes beam, while solid lines correspond to pump. The blue lines correspond to the one-beam modulation case and the red lines correspond to the two-beam modulation case. The angle of the SLM is greatly exaggerated. Typical sidebands produced from this arrangement are also shown. The inset schematically depicts our two chirped pulses and the delay between them. (b) Computer generated phase masks (left), optical vortices obtained with these phase masks just before the focusing lens, approximately 76 cm after the SLM (middle), and vortices focused with a tilted lens (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TC measurement of Raman sidebands using a tilted lens. For each block: columns 1 and 3 are the sidebands before the lens, Columns 2 and 4 are the sidebands after the lens. From top to bottom – AS1, AS2, AS3. Results are summarized in Table 1. (a) Left (right) two columns: sidebands generated with lp = 0 and ls = −1 (ls = 1). (b) Left (right) two columns: sidebands generated with lp = 0 and ls = −2 (ls = 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TC measurement of Raman sidebands using a tilted lens. Columns 1 and 3 are the sidebands before the lens, Columns 2 and 4 are the sidebands after the lens. Left (right) two columns: sidebands generated with lp = 0 and ls = −3 (ls = 3). From top to bottom – AS1 (TC=±3; 4 spots), AS2 (TC=±6; 6 spots).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TC measurement of Raman sidebands using a tilted lens. For each block: digital phase maps for generating pump and Stokes beams (left), AS1 generated when these phase maps are applied (middle), AS1 focused with tilted lens (right).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Predicted, and measured, TC for (from top to bottom) ls = +1(−1), ls = +2(−2), and ls = +3(−3). In all cases, lp = 0.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Predicted, and measured, TC for 4 different cases of mixed lp and ls.

Equations (1)

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l n = ( n + 1 ) l p n l s

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