Abstract

We analyzed a transient blinking phenomenon in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal (LC) mode that occurred at the moment of frame change even in the optimized DC offset condition for minimum image flicker. Based on the positional dynamic behaviors of LCs by using a high-speed camera, we found that the transient blink is highly related to the asymmetric responses of the splay-bend transitions caused by the flexoelectric (FE) effect. To remove the transient blink, the elastic property adjustment of LCs was an effective solution because the FE switching dynamics between the splay-enhanced and bend-enhanced deformations are highly dependent on the elastic constants of LCs, which is the cause of momentary brightness drop.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. H. C. Choi, “The evolution of low power consumption technologies in the portable-LCD industry,” in Proceedings of The 13th International Meeting on Informational Display (2013), p. 229.
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    [Crossref]
  4. J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. I. Dozov, Ph. Martinot-Lagarde, and G. Durand, “Flexoelectrically controlled twist of texture in a nematic liquid crystal,” J. Physique Lett. 43(10), 365–369 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Rudquist and S. T. Lagerwall, “On the flexoelectric effect in nematics,” Liq. Cryst. 23(4), 503-510 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectricity in nematic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011701 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. A. Jewell and J. R. Sambles, “Fully leaky guided mode study of the flexoelectric effect and surface polarization in hybrid aligned nematic cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 19–24 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).
  22. S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006), Chap. 4.
  25. H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, C. H. Oh, and S. D. Yeo, “Fast response time in IPS mode using LC mixtures with high elastic constant,” in Proceedings of The 4th International Meeting on Informational Display (2004), pp. 843–846.
  29. D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

2015 (3)

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, E.-J. Choi, and J.-H. Lee, “Elimination of image flicker in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display driven with low frequency electric field,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30586–30591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

C. Kischka, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Measurement of the sum (e1 + e3) of the flexoelectric coefficients e1 and e3 of nematic liquid crystals using a hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 494(1), 93–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectricity in nematic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011701 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. A. Jewell and J. R. Sambles, “Fully leaky guided mode study of the flexoelectric effect and surface polarization in hybrid aligned nematic cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 19–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Rudquist and S. T. Lagerwall, “On the flexoelectric effect in nematics,” Liq. Cryst. 23(4), 503-510 (1997).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

I. Dozov, Ph. Martinot-Lagarde, and G. Durand, “Flexoelectrically controlled twist of texture in a nematic liquid crystal,” J. Physique Lett. 43(10), 365–369 (1982).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. B. Meyer, “Piezoelectric effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(18), 918–921 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. H.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akahane, T.

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. M.

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-H.

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

Blatch, A. E.

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Broughton, B. J.

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, E.-J.

Choi, H. C.

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

H. C. Choi, “The evolution of low power consumption technologies in the portable-LCD industry,” in Proceedings of The 13th International Meeting on Informational Display (2013), p. 229.

C. S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, C. H. Oh, and S. D. Yeo, “Fast response time in IPS mode using LC mixtures with high elastic constant,” in Proceedings of The 4th International Meeting on Informational Display (2004), pp. 843–846.

Choi, T.-H.

Clarke, M. J.

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dozov, I.

I. Dozov, Ph. Martinot-Lagarde, and G. Durand, “Flexoelectrically controlled twist of texture in a nematic liquid crystal,” J. Physique Lett. 43(10), 365–369 (1982).
[Crossref]

Durand, G.

I. Dozov, Ph. Martinot-Lagarde, and G. Durand, “Flexoelectrically controlled twist of texture in a nematic liquid crystal,” J. Physique Lett. 43(10), 365–369 (1982).
[Crossref]

Éber, N.

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elston, S. J.

S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectricity in nematic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011701 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kischka, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Measurement of the sum (e1 + e3) of the flexoelectric coefficients e1 and e3 of nematic liquid crystals using a hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 494(1), 93–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fodor-Csorba, K.

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gleeson, J. T.

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ha, Y. M.

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

Harden, J.

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashidate, S.

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hermann, D. S.

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hur, H. J.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. I.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

Ichimura, K.

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jákli, A.

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, I. W.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jewell, S. A.

S. A. Jewell and J. R. Sambles, “Fully leaky guided mode study of the flexoelectric effect and surface polarization in hybrid aligned nematic cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 19–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jo, M. H.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, H. G.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

Kang, I. B.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

Kim, B. K.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. K.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-R.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

Kim, J.-T.

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

Kim, J.-W.

Kimura, M.

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kischka, C.

C. Kischka, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Measurement of the sum (e1 + e3) of the flexoelectric coefficients e1 and e3 of nematic liquid crystals using a hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 494(1), 93–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Komitov, L.

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kudo, K.

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, S. T.

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Rudquist and S. T. Lagerwall, “On the flexoelectric effect in nematics,” Liq. Cryst. 23(4), 503-510 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-J.

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

Lee, H. J.

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, E.-J. Choi, and J.-H. Lee, “Elimination of image flicker in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display driven with low frequency electric field,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30586–30591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, C. H. Oh, and S. D. Yeo, “Fast response time in IPS mode using LC mixtures with high elastic constant,” in Proceedings of The 4th International Meeting on Informational Display (2004), pp. 843–846.

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

Lee, S. H.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. W.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

Lim, C. S.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

C. S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, C. H. Oh, and S. D. Yeo, “Fast response time in IPS mode using LC mixtures with high elastic constant,” in Proceedings of The 4th International Meeting on Informational Display (2004), pp. 843–846.

Luo, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.

I. Dozov, Ph. Martinot-Lagarde, and G. Durand, “Flexoelectrically controlled twist of texture in a nematic liquid crystal,” J. Physique Lett. 43(10), 365–369 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mbanga, B.

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, R. B.

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Meyer, “Piezoelectric effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(18), 918–921 (1969).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nishijou, H.

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oh, C. H.

C. S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, C. H. Oh, and S. D. Yeo, “Fast response time in IPS mode using LC mixtures with high elastic constant,” in Proceedings of The 4th International Meeting on Informational Display (2004), pp. 843–846.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

Oh, S.-W.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, M.-K.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, F.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ranjkesh, A.

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

Raynes, E. P.

C. Kischka, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Measurement of the sum (e1 + e3) of the flexoelectric coefficients e1 and e3 of nematic liquid crystals using a hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 494(1), 93–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rudquist, P.

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Rudquist and S. T. Lagerwall, “On the flexoelectric effect in nematics,” Liq. Cryst. 23(4), 503-510 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J. R.

S. A. Jewell and J. R. Sambles, “Fully leaky guided mode study of the flexoelectric effect and surface polarization in hybrid aligned nematic cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 19–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shim, G.-Y.

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

Song, X.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sprunt, S.

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Usui, M.

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, T.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeo, S. D.

C. S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, C. H. Oh, and S. D. Yeo, “Fast response time in IPS mode using LC mixtures with high elastic constant,” in Proceedings of The 4th International Meeting on Informational Display (2004), pp. 843–846.

Yoo, S.-H.

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

Yoon, T.-H.

Yun, H. J.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Crystals (1)

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. J. Coles, M. J. Clarke, S. M. Morris, B. J. Broughton, and A. E. Blatch, “Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(3), 034104 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Jewell and J. R. Sambles, “Fully leaky guided mode study of the flexoelectric effect and surface polarization in hybrid aligned nematic cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 19–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Physique Lett. (1)

I. Dozov, Ph. Martinot-Lagarde, and G. Durand, “Flexoelectrically controlled twist of texture in a nematic liquid crystal,” J. Physique Lett. 43(10), 365–369 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Takahashi, S. Hashidate, H. Nishijou, M. Usui, M. Kimura, and T. Akahane, “Novel measurement method for flexoelectric coefficients of nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 1865–1869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (4)

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Rudquist and S. T. Lagerwall, “On the flexoelectric effect in nematics,” Liq. Cryst. 23(4), 503-510 (1997).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, M.-K. Park, H. J. Lee, J. M. Bae, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Improvement of asymmetric viewing angle properties in single-domain fringe-field-switching liquid crystal mode by using parallel-rubbed alignment surfaces,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 572–584 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

C. Kischka, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Measurement of the sum (e1 + e3) of the flexoelectric coefficients e1 and e3 of nematic liquid crystals using a hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 494(1), 93–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectricity in nematic domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011701 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

D. S. Hermann, P. Rudquist, K. Ichimura, K. Kudo, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2857–2860 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. B. Meyer, “Piezoelectric effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(18), 918–921 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Éber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, and A. Jákli, “Giant flexoelectricity of bent-core nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. (1)

D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, J.-T. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Electro-optic variation in AH-IPS liquid crystal mode by controlling the flexoelectric effect of liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 46(1), 1573–1576 (2015).

Other (9)

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006), Chap. 4.

C. S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, H. C. Choi, C. H. Oh, and S. D. Yeo, “Fast response time in IPS mode using LC mixtures with high elastic constant,” in Proceedings of The 4th International Meeting on Informational Display (2004), pp. 843–846.

D. K. Kim, C. S. Lim, D.-J. Lee, J. I. Hwang, H. G. Jung, S. W. Lee, C. H. Oh, and I. B. Kang, “The improvement of GTG response time using new concept LC mixture in S-IPS mode for high frame frequency technologies,” in Proceedings of The 6th International Meeting on Informational Display (2006), pp. 864–867.

H. C. Choi, “The evolution of low power consumption technologies in the portable-LCD industry,” in Proceedings of The 13th International Meeting on Informational Display (2013), p. 229.

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, S.-H. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, and H.-R. Kim, “Analysis on flexoelectric effect in AH-IPS LC mode under low frame rate driving using a high speed camera,” in Proceedings of The 21st International Display Workshops (2014), pp. 155–158.

K.-C. Chu, C.-W. Huang, R.-F. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, J.-N. Yeh, S.-Y. Su, C.-J. Ou, S.-C. F. Jiang, and W.-C. Tsai, “A method for analyzing the eye strain in fringe-field-switching LCD under low-frequency driving,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Pap. 45(1), pp. 308–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. R. Hainich and O. Bimber, Displays - Fundamentals & Applications (CRC, 2011), Chap. 4.

A. Valberg, Light Vision Color (Wiley, 2005).

M. Perz, Flicker perception in the periphery (Master thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2010).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structure and cross-sectional view of the FFS pixel.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic image of high-speed camera evaluation system and operating signal waveform. (V20: voltage for 20% transmittance of full brightness level, Voffset: induced offset voltage, and Vmin: the optimum DC offset condition showing the minimum static flicker.)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The variation of average brightness level over a pixel area observed at the different DC offset values in our FFS LC cell that is operated at V20 with a square wave signal of 0.5 Hz. (a) Negative DC offset of 1 V from Vmin (VoffsetVmin < 0). (b) Optimum DC offset (VoffsetVmin = 0). (c) Positive DC offset of 1 V from Vmin (VoffsetVmin > 0). (V20: voltage for 20% transmittance of full brightness level, Voffset: induced offset voltage, and Vmin: optimum DC offset showing the minimum flicker.)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Positional brightness distribution depending on DC offset condition and signal polarity. (Contrast of images was adjusted from original images for the vivid comparison.) (b) DC offset sensitivity on brightness and magnitude of flicker in the FFS pixel. (Voffset: induced offset voltage, Vmin: optimum DC offset showing the minimum flicker, VoffsetVmin: additional DC offset deviated from Vmin.)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Reorientation of LC directors and observed positional brightness image under fringe-fields. (b) Schematic image of splay-bend transition and measured brightness profiles depending on the signal polarity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transient blinking phenomenon of a conventional p-LC observed at the moment of frame change in FFS LC mode that is operated with a square wave signal of 0.5 Hz. (Wi→j and Ii→j: temporal width and intensity of momentary brightness drop peaks, respectively. i→j denotes the direction of signal change between positive (P) and negative (N) frames)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured LC dynamics at the moment of frame change under the minimum static flickering condition using the conventional p-LC. (a,c) Positional and time-varying views for the frame change from positive to negative. (b,d) Positional and time-varying views for the frame change from negative to positive. (e) Schematic image of asymmetric dynamic behavior between splay and bend deformations. (τi→j: response for the splay-bend transition. i→j denotes the change between splay (S) and bend (B) deformations)
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Transient blinking phenomena and its magnitude depending on elastic constants observed at the moment of frame change in FFS LC mode that is operated with a square wave signal of 0.5 Hz.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured LC dynamics at the moment of frame change under the minimum static flickering condition using the LC-C. (a,c) Positional and time-varying views for the frame change from positive to negative. (b,d) Positional and time-varying views for the frame change from negative to positive. (e) Schematic image of asymmetric dynamic behavior between splay and bend deformations. (τi→j: response for the splay-bend transition. i→j denotes the change between splay (S) and bend (B) deformations)

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of reference p-LC and three LC samples employed for evaluation of the transient blinking phenomenon.

Equations (2)

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Degree of flicker (%)= AC component DC component = ( T max T min ) { ( T max + T min ) 2 } ×100 T max and T min :Maximum and minimum values of measured average brightness over an entire pixel in fluctuating brightness
P f = e s n( n )+ e b n×( ×n ) P f :Flexoelectric polarization e s and e b :Splay and bend flexoelectric LC coefficients n: Vector description of the LC director

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