Abstract

We present an automatic segmentation method for the delineation and quantitative thickness measurement of multiple layers in endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The boundaries of the mucosa and the sub-mucosa layers are accurately extracted using a graph-theory-based dynamic programming algorithm. The algorithm was tested with sheep airway OCT images. Quantitative thicknesses of the mucosal layers are obtained automatically for smoke inhalation injury experiments.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. R. Bellman, “On the theory of dynamic programming,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38(8), 716–719 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Tian, P. Marziliano, M. Baskaran, T. A. Tun, and T. Aung, “Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 397–411 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

S. Huang, Z. Piao, J. Zhu, F. Lu, and Z. Chen, “In vivo microvascular network imaging of the human retina combined with an automatic three-dimensional segmentation method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kaba, Y. Wang, C. Wang, X. Liu, H. Zhu, A. G. Salazar-Gonzalez, and Y. Li, “Retina layer segmentation using kernel graph cuts and continuous max-flow,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7366–7384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Du, G. Liu, G. Feng, and Z. Chen, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. LaRocca, S. J. Chiu, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Robust automatic segmentation of corneal layer boundaries in SDOCT images using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1524–1538 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

B. A. Pruitt and W. G. Cioffi, “Diagnosis and treatment of smoke inhalation,” J. Intensive Care Med. 10(3), 117–127 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. B. Hubbard, P. C. Langlinais, T. Shimazu, C. V. Okerberg, A. D. Mason, and B. A. Pruitt., “The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep,” J. Trauma 31(11), 1477–1486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

R. Bellman, “On the theory of dynamic programming,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38(8), 716–719 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, G.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aung, T.

Baskaran, M.

Batchinsky, A.

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batchinsky, A. I.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belenkiy, S.

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellman, R.

R. Bellman, “On the theory of dynamic programming,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38(8), 716–719 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowes Rickman, C.

Brenner, M.

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, A. S.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burkett, S. E.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burney, T.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancio, L. C.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Cancio, “Current concepts in the pathophysiology and treatment of inhalation injury,” J. Trauma 7(1), 19–35 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Candido, T.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

Chen, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Piao, J. Zhu, F. Lu, and Z. Chen, “In vivo microvascular network imaging of the human retina combined with an automatic three-dimensional segmentation method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Du, G. Liu, G. Feng, and Z. Chen, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jian, L. Yu, B. Rao, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional speckle suppression in Optical Coherence Tomography based on the curvelet transform,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1024–1032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 147–149 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 147–149 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

Chou, L.

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, S.

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

Chung, K. K.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cioffi, W. G.

B. A. Pruitt and W. G. Cioffi, “Diagnosis and treatment of smoke inhalation,” J. Intensive Care Med. 10(3), 117–127 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, R. A.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coxson, H. O.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

Du, Y.

Y. Du, G. Liu, G. Feng, and Z. Chen, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

English, J.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Feng, G.

Y. Du, G. Liu, G. Feng, and Z. Chen, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finley, R.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanson, M. A.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawkins, H. K.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidary, A. E.

Herndon, D. N.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heydarian, M.

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

Huang, S.

S. Huang, Z. Piao, J. Zhu, F. Lu, and Z. Chen, “In vivo microvascular network imaging of the human retina combined with an automatic three-dimensional segmentation method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubbard, G. B.

G. B. Hubbard, P. C. Langlinais, T. Shimazu, C. V. Okerberg, A. D. Mason, and B. A. Pruitt., “The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep,” J. Trauma 31(11), 1477–1486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jian, Z.

Jing, J.

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, B. S.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, J.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaba, D.

Katahira, J.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirby, M.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

Kreuter, K.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, A. N.

Lam, S.

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

Lane, P.

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langlinais, P. C.

G. B. Hubbard, P. C. Langlinais, T. Shimazu, C. V. Okerberg, A. D. Mason, and B. A. Pruitt., “The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep,” J. Trauma 31(11), 1477–1486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaRocca, F.

Lee, A. M. D.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

Lee, S.-W.

Li, X. T.

Li, Y.

Linares, H. A.

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Y. Du, G. Liu, G. Feng, and Z. Chen, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Loy, A. C.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

S. Huang, Z. Piao, J. Zhu, F. Lu, and Z. Chen, “In vivo microvascular network imaging of the human retina combined with an automatic three-dimensional segmentation method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C.

M. Kirby, A. M. D. Lee, T. Candido, C. Macaulay, P. Lane, S. Lam, and H. O. Coxson, “Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography : comparison with manual segmentation and histology,” Proc. SPIE 8927, 1–9 (2014).

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahon, S.

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marziliano, P.

Mason, A. D.

G. B. Hubbard, P. C. Langlinais, T. Shimazu, C. V. Okerberg, A. D. Mason, and B. A. Pruitt., “The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep,” J. Trauma 31(11), 1477–1486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCormack, D.

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

McNabb, R. P.

Morris, M. J.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, K.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narula, N.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Necsoiu, C.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen, R.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicholas, P.

Ohtani, K.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okerberg, C. V.

G. B. Hubbard, P. C. Langlinais, T. Shimazu, C. V. Okerberg, A. D. Mason, and B. A. Pruitt., “The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep,” J. Trauma 31(11), 1477–1486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parraga, G.

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

Piao, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Piao, J. Zhu, F. Lu, and Z. Chen, “In vivo microvascular network imaging of the human retina combined with an automatic three-dimensional segmentation method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prien, T.

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruitt, B. A.

B. A. Pruitt and W. G. Cioffi, “Diagnosis and treatment of smoke inhalation,” J. Intensive Care Med. 10(3), 117–127 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. Hubbard, P. C. Langlinais, T. Shimazu, C. V. Okerberg, A. D. Mason, and B. A. Pruitt., “The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep,” J. Trauma 31(11), 1477–1486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramalingam, T.

L. Chou, A. Batchinsky, S. Belenkiy, J. Jing, T. Ramalingam, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 36018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

Regn, D. D.

A. I. Batchinsky, S. E. Burkett, T. B. Zanders, K. K. Chung, D. D. Regn, B. S. Jordan, C. Necsoiu, R. Nguyen, M. A. Hanson, M. J. Morris, and L. C. Cancio, “Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine,” Crit. Care Med. 39(10), 2314–2321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridgway, J. M.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salazar-Gonzalez, A. G.

Schmalstieg, F. C.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalansky, R.

A. M. D. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimazu, T.

G. B. Hubbard, P. C. Langlinais, T. Shimazu, C. V. Okerberg, A. D. Mason, and B. A. Pruitt., “The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep,” J. Trauma 31(11), 1477–1486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soejima, K.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

Toth, C. A.

Traber, D. L.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Traber, H. A. Linares, D. N. Herndon, and T. Prien, “The pathophysiology of inhalation injury--a review,” Burns 14(5), 357–364 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traber, L. D.

R. A. Cox, A. S. Burke, K. Soejima, K. Murakami, J. Katahira, L. D. Traber, D. N. Herndon, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. L. Traber, and H. K. Hawkins, “Airway obstruction in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injuries,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(3), 295–302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, A.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Tseng, L.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tun, T. A.

Wang, C.

Wang, Y.

Wheatley, A.

M. Heydarian, S. Choy, A. Wheatley, D. McCormack, H. O. Coxson, S. Lam, and G. Parraga, “Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7965(519), 1–9 (2011).

Wong, B.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J. F.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, D.

Yu, L.

Z. Jian, L. Yu, B. Rao, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional speckle suppression in Optical Coherence Tomography based on the curvelet transform,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1024–1032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The LR-SSOCT setup; (b) the structure of the imaging probe for airway imaging; (c) a sample image in circumferential coordinate system; (d) Cartesian coordinate image of (c); (e) the enlarged detail of the red box in (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The workflow of the proposed automatic detection algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The pre-processing step: (a) original input image where the sheath, speckle noise, and mirror objects are seen; (b) the binaried black and white image; (c) the first morphological operation: picking out major components; (d) the second morphological operation: bridging and enlarging the potential airway wall regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DP principle: (a) a given image where the number is the pixel intensity, and the blue line is the edge. (b) The path and cost calculated according to Eq. (1). The minimum cost is given by the 4th node in the last column; the shortest path is traced back starting from this node (green arrows).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The process of finding multiple edges: (a), (c), and (e) are a flattened graph constructed from gradient images of the airway lumen, the mucosa and the submucosa layer; (b), (d), and (f) are the corresponding shortest paths obtained by the DP algorithm of (a), (c) and (e), respectively; (g) is the original OCT image overlaid with the edges detected.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of the edge detection results in different OCT airway images taken from the pig data set. From left to right: the original images, the Cartesian coordinate images with edge detected, the circumferential images.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Illustration of the edge detection results in different OCT airway images taken from the sheep data set. From left to right: the original images, the Cartesian coordinate images with edge detected, the circumferential images.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Thickness measurement comparison between baseline and post-smoke images of the pig data set. From left to right: original images, edge extracted images (thickness measured regions enlarged), and circumferential images.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Thickness measurement comparison between baseline and post-smoke images of the sheep data set. From left to right: original images, edge extracted images (thickness measured regions enlarged), and circumferential images.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Thickness of the (a) mucosa and (b) submucosa changes according to the time post-smoke.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of manual and automatic segmentation results.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average thickness measurement results for the pig data set*

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Table 3 Average thickness measurement results for the sheep data set*

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Cost(i,j)=min[ λw(I(i1,j+1),I(i,j))+Cost(i1,j+1), w(I(i1,j),I(i,j))+Cost(i1,j), λw(I(i1,j1),I(i,j))+Cost(i1,j1) ]=min[ cos t 1 , cos t 2 , cos t 3 ]
w(a,b)=2×max(I)ab.
Path(i,j)={ j+1,ifCost=cos t 1 ; j,ifCost=cos t 2 ; j1,ifCost=cos t 3 .
G= g x 2 + g y 2
RMSE= 1 n i=1 n ( A i M i ) 2 MAD= 1 n i=1 n | A i M i |
AVGT= 1 n i=1 n ( A i t A i b ) RMSTD= 1 n i=1 n [( A i t A i b )( M i t M i b )] 2 DSC= 2| XY | | X |+| Y |

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