Abstract

We present germanium microdisk optical resonators under a large biaxial tensile strain using a CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Biaxial tensile strain of ~0.7% is achieved by means of a stress concentration technique that allows the strain level to be customized by carefully selecting certain lithographic dimensions. The partial strain relaxation at the edges of a patterned germanium microdisk is compensated by depositing compressively stressed silicon nitride layer. Two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy measurements along with finite-element method simulations confirm a relatively homogeneous strain distribution within the final microdisk structure. Photoluminescence results show clear optical resonances due to whispering gallery modes which are in good agreement with finite-difference time-domain optical simulations. Our bandgap-customizable microdisks present a new route towards an efficient germanium light source for on-chip optical interconnects.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Observation of improved minority carrier lifetimes in high-quality Ge-on-insulator using time-resolved photoluminescence,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6205–6208 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. H. Lim, S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, “Enhanced direct bandgap emission in germanium by micromechanical strain engineering,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16358–16365 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodiodes With a 3-dB Bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

1996 (1)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref and L. Friedman, “Direct-gap Ge/GeSn/Si and GeSn/Ge/Si heterostructures,” Superlattices Microstruct. 14(2-3), 189–193 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. G. Van der Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balram, K.

Beaudoin, G.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechler, S.

Berroth, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodiodes With a 3-dB Bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertin, H.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Bosseboeuf, A.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boztug, C.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

Brongersma, M. L.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Observation of improved minority carrier lifetimes in high-quality Ge-on-insulator using time-resolved photoluminescence,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6205–6208 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chaigneau, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.-L.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

David, S.

de Kersauson, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dutt, B.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

El Kurdi, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischetti, M. V.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fishman, G.

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friedman, L.

R. A. Soref and L. Friedman, “Direct-gap Ge/GeSn/Si and GeSn/Ge/Si heterostructures,” Superlattices Microstruct. 14(2-3), 189–193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghrib, A.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gollhofer, M.

Gupta, S.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).

Harris, J. S.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. C.-Y.

Isella, G.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, Y.

Jacobson, R. B.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jakomin, R.

Jung, W. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.-H.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Observation of improved minority carrier lifetimes in high-quality Ge-on-insulator using time-resolved photoluminescence,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6205–6208 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaschel, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodiodes With a 3-dB Bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

R. Koerner, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, K. Kostecki, S. Bechler, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electrically pumped lasing from Ge Fabry-Perot resonators on Si,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14815–14822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodiodes With a 3-dB Bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

Klinger, S.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodiodes With a 3-dB Bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koch, T. L.

Koerner, R.

Kostecki, K.

Kurdi, M. E.

Lagally, M. G.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
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Laux, S. E.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
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Lee, J. H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, P. H.

Lin, H.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Lu, J.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Magyari-Köpe, B.

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martincic, E.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Miller, D.

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nam, D.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Observation of improved minority carrier lifetimes in high-quality Ge-on-insulator using time-resolved photoluminescence,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6205–6208 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishi, Y.

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oehme, M.

R. Koerner, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, K. Kostecki, S. Bechler, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electrically pumped lasing from Ge Fabry-Perot resonators on Si,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14815–14822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodiodes With a 3-dB Bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ossikovski, R.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

Park, S.

Paskiewicz, D. M.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, N.

Petykiewicz, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prost, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

Rouifed, M.-S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roy, A.

Sagnes, I.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Pérez, J. R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K.

Saraswat, K. C.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Observation of improved minority carrier lifetimes in high-quality Ge-on-insulator using time-resolved photoluminescence,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6205–6208 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. E. Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

Schulze, J.

Shambat, G.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and L. Friedman, “Direct-gap Ge/GeSn/Si and GeSn/Ge/Si heterostructures,” Superlattices Microstruct. 14(2-3), 189–193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sudradjat, F. F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D.

Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Van der Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van der Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
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Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

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B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
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M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8 (2014).
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J. Petykiewicz, D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, S. Buckley, A. Y. Piggott, J. Vučković, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct Bandgap Light Emission from Strained Ge Nanowires Coupled with High-Q Optical Cavities,” Http://Arxiv.Org/Abs/1508.01255 (2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Detailed fabrication process flow.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated strain distribution of as-patterned strained Ge microdisk showing significant strain relaxation. (b) Simulated strain distribution of strained Ge microdisk with SiN stressor showing mostly restored strain homogeneity. Inset of Fig. 2(b) shows simulated optical field distribution of the structure in Fig. 2(b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of biaxially strained Ge structure before patterning. (b) SEM of biaxially strained Ge microdisk with SiN on top.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Two-dimensional Raman mapping of (a) unpatterned structure, (b) as-patterned microdisk, and (c) final microdisk with SiN on top.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) PL spectra from unpatterned and patterned structures for two different strain levels. (b) Simulated optical spectrum (red) and the spectrum from 0.4%-strained microdisk (black) for comparision.

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