Abstract

We demonstrate a device that integrates a III–V semiconductor saturable absorber mirror with a graphene electro-optic modulator, which provides a monolithic solution to modelocking and noise suppression in a frequency comb. The device offers a pure loss modulation bandwidth exceeding 5 MHz and only requires a low voltage driver. This hybrid device provides not only compactness and simplicity in laser cavity design, but also small insertion loss, compared to the previous metallic-mirror-based modulators. We believe this work paves the way to portable and fieldable phase-coherent frequency combs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (1)

2014 (2)

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 15–28 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Newbury and B. Washburn, “Theory of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Rutter, K. Singer, and A. Peaker, “The incorporation of erbium into molecular beam epitaxy grown gallium arsenide,” J. Cryst. Growth 182, 247–254 (1997).
[Crossref]

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Benko, C.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bethge, J.

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coddington, I.

Colombo, L.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Fiber based frequency comb lasers and their applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. WE4.

Driscoll, D. C.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Duncker, H.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Eikema, K. S. E.

Fermann, M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H¨ansch, T. W.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Han, S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hanson, M. P.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Hati, A.

Hellmig, O.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Henriksen, E. A.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Hong, F. L.

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Fiber based frequency comb lasers and their applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. WE4.

Inaba, H.

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Fiber based frequency comb lasers and their applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. WE4.

Iwakuni, K.

Jang, H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jang, Y.-S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, K.-I.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 15–28 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, P.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kohfeldt, A.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Krutzik, M.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Kuse, N.

Lee, C.-C.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.-H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lezius, M.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Li, X.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, C.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Letters 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. C.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. J.

Maryenko, D.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Fiber based frequency comb lasers and their applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. WE4.

Minoshima, K.

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Fiber based frequency comb lasers and their applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. WE4.

Mohr, C.

Moll, K. D.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nah, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newbury, N.

N. Newbury and B. Washburn, “Theory of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Onae, A.

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Fiber based frequency comb lasers and their applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. WE4.

Ospald, F.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peaker, A.

P. Rutter, K. Singer, and A. Peaker, “The incorporation of erbium into molecular beam epitaxy grown gallium arsenide,” J. Cryst. Growth 182, 247–254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Peters, A.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Piner, R.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ruehl, A.

Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutter, P.

P. Rutter, K. Singer, and A. Peaker, “The incorporation of erbium into molecular beam epitaxy grown gallium arsenide,” J. Cryst. Growth 182, 247–254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

Schilt, S.

Schkolnik, V.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Sengstock, K.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinclair, L. C.

Singer, K.

P. Rutter, K. Singer, and A. Peaker, “The incorporation of erbium into molecular beam epitaxy grown gallium arsenide,” J. Cryst. Growth 182, 247–254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Smet, J. H.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stormer, H. L.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

Suzuki, S.

Swann, W. C.

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, M. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Klitzing, K.

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washburn, B.

N. Newbury and B. Washburn, “Theory of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wicht, A.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Wilken, T.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Windpassinger, P.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

Xie, W.

Yang, D.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2196–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Letters 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Letters 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 15–28 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Ospald, D. Maryenko, K. von Klitzing, D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. Smet, “1.55µ m ultrafast photoconductive switches based on ErAs:InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131117 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Newbury and B. Washburn, “Theory of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. Rutter, K. Singer, and A. Peaker, “The incorporation of erbium into molecular beam epitaxy grown gallium arsenide,” J. Cryst. Growth 182, 247–254 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Letters (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Letters 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Physics (1)

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Physics 4, 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Science (2)

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Fiber based frequency comb lasers and their applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. WE4.

C.-C. Lee and T. R. Schibli, “High-bandwidth, single-pole control of intracavity power in a mode-locked laser based on co-doped gain medium,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. CTh1H.6.

T. Wilken, M. Lezius, T. W. H¨ansch, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, V. Schkolnik, M. Krutzik, H. Duncker, O. Hellmig, P. Windpassinger, K. Sengstock, A. Peters, and R. Holzwarth, “A frequency comb and precision spectroscopy experiment in space,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. AF2H.5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-sectional view of the hybrid graphene-SESAM device. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the SESAM structure, which has been cleaved for inspection. (c) Plot of refractive index and electric field (optical) enhancement as a function of position in the z direction, as specified with a red arrow. The field enhancement is defined as the ratio of the square modulus of local fields to that of the incident wave and is calculated based on a transfer-matrix approach. The addition of a 50-nm Ta2O5 layer only slightly affects the field distribution in the device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Physical properties of SESAM, without graphene. (a) Sheet resistance versus annealing temperature. Before annealing is denoted by 0°C. (b) Carrier relaxation dynamics in sample before and after annealing. With a bi-exponential fit function Δ R / R = A 1 e t / τ 1 + A 2 e t / τ 2, the recovery times (τ1, τ2) and the ratio of fast to slow relaxation (A1/A2) are found to be τ1 ~2 ps, τ2 ~21 ps, and A1/A2 = 1.9 in the un-annealed sample; τ1 ~1 ps, τ2 ~16 ps, and A1/A2 = 0.5 in the 500°C-annealed sample. (c) Nonlinear absorption characterization of the absorber, before annealing. Using a slow-absorber fit function with two-photon absorption, Δ R = q 0 ( F sat / F ) ( 1 e F / F sat ) β TPA TPA (F/ τ pulse ), we found q0 ~0.9%(saturable loss), Fsat ~ 180 µJ/cm2(pulse fluence), βTPATPA ~103 cm·nm/GW(two-photon-absorption coefficient ×layer thickness), and a non-saturable loss ~1.1%.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Heatmap of the modulation depth of the graphene modulator. (b) Heatmap of the optical reflectivity of the device, taken simultaneously with the modulation depth.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Transfer function of the graphene modulator. The voltage applied is 2Vpp. (b) Modulation depth measured as a function of applied ac voltage amplitude at 100 kHz.

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