Abstract

We investigated the broadband operations of a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) based on a forward-biased-PIN diode. The phase shifter was integrated with a passive-circuit equalizer to compensate for the narrowband characteristics of the diodes, which consists of a simple resistance of doped silicon and a parallel-plate metal capacitance. The device structure was simple and fabricated using standard CMOS processes. The measured results for a 50-Ω driver indicated there was a small VπL of 0.31 V·cm and a flat frequency response for a 3-dB bandwidth (f3dB) of 17 GHz, which agree well with the designed values. A 25-Gb/s large-signal operation was obtained using binary signals without pre-emphasis. The modulator showed a linear modulation property to the applied voltage, due to the metal capacitance of the equalizer.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdalla, S.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Akagawa, T.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

Akiyama, S.

S. Akiyama and T. Usuki, “High-speed and efficient silicon modulator based on forward-biased pin diodes,” Front. Phys. 2, 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, M. Mori, and T. Usuki, ”High-performance silicon modulator for integrated transceivers fabricated on 300-mm wafer,” Proc. 40th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (2014), paper P.2.8.
[Crossref]

Anderson, S.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Baba, T.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, M. Mori, and T. Usuki, ”High-performance silicon modulator for integrated transceivers fabricated on 300-mm wafer,” Proc. 40th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (2014), paper P.2.8.
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

Baks, C.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Budd, R. A.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Cerasio, A.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Chang, K. F.

Chen, Y. K.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Conti, D.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Daugherty, D.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

De Dobbelaere, P.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Doany, F. E.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fournier, M.

Fujikata, J.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, and T. Horikawa, “High speed and highly efficient Si optical modulator with MOS junction for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2013), paper ThA4.

Gan, F.

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Gardes, F. Y.

Geis, M. W.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Gloeckner, S.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Grosse, P.

Guckenberger, D.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Harrison, M.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Hirayama, N.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

Horikawa, T.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, and T. Horikawa, “High speed and highly efficient Si optical modulator with MOS junction for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2013), paper ThA4.

Hu, Y.

Imai, M.

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, M. Mori, and T. Usuki, ”High-performance silicon modulator for integrated transceivers fabricated on 300-mm wafer,” Proc. 40th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (2014), paper P.2.8.
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

Ippen, E. P.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jia, L.

Kartner, F. X.

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Kärtner, F. X.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koshino, K.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuchta, D. M.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Libsch, F.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Luo, X.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Mack, M.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

Masini, G.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Mazzini, M.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Mekis, A.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, M. Mori, and T. Usuki, ”High-performance silicon modulator for integrated transceivers fabricated on 300-mm wafer,” Proc. 40th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (2014), paper P.2.8.
[Crossref]

Muzio, C.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Narasimha, A.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, M.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

Noguchi, Y.

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

Nyland, M.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Okayama, H.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfnuer, S.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Pinguet, T.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahni, S.

P. De Dobbelaere, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, A. Narasimha, D. Guckenberger, and M. Harrison, “Si Photonics Based High-Speed optical Transceivers,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, Technical Digest (2012), paper We.1.E.5.
[Crossref]

Saito, E.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

Schares, L.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Schow, C. L.

R. A. Budd, L. Schares, B. G. Lee, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, C. L. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) packaging for scalable and gain-integrated silicon photonics switching platforms,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (2015), pp. 1280.
[Crossref]

Schulein, R. T.

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Sekaric, L.

Seki, M.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

Siadat, D.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Song, J.

Sorace, C. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spector, S. J.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Stayt, J.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Sun, P.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, M.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, and T. Horikawa, “High speed and highly efficient Si optical modulator with MOS junction for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2013), paper ThA4.

Takahashi, S.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, and T. Horikawa, “High speed and highly efficient Si optical modulator with MOS junction for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2013), paper ThA4.

Thomson, D. J.

Togami, C.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Toyama, M.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

Traverso, M.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Usuki, T.

S. Akiyama and T. Usuki, “High-speed and efficient silicon modulator based on forward-biased pin diodes,” Front. Phys. 2, 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401611 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Usuki, “Robust optical data transfer on silicon photonic chip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(18), 2933–2940 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “ 50-Gb/s silicon modulator Using 250-μm-long phase shifter based-on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Group IV Photonics (2012), paper ThC2.

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, M. Mori, and T. Usuki, ”High-performance silicon modulator for integrated transceivers fabricated on 300-mm wafer,” Proc. 40th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (2014), paper P.2.8.
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Webster, M.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Ynushefski, K.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cerasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Ynushefski, and D. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2015), paper Th5B.3.

Yoon, J. U.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), paper CTuQ6.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Equivalent circuit of forward-biased PIN-diode (a) without and (b, c) with RC passive equalizer. (b) and (c) are equivalent when CERE = CFRF.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated results of modulation efficiency of PIN diode with (all colored lines) and without (black line) equalizer. For the modulator with the equalizer, the CERE equals the CFRF for the solid lines, whereas there is mismatching between them for the dotted lines.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Top-view of fabricated silicon MZM modulator based on PIN-diode-based phase shifter combined with RC passive equalizer, (b) Close-up of phase shifter based on side-wall grating waveguide. (c) Top view of resistance of equalizer (RE), where length is defined as L_RE. (d) Cross section of one of two phase shifters. Its position is indicated by the dotted line in (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured optical frequency response of MZM with equalizer under forward-biased condition, where RE and CE are set at 16 kΩ and 100 fF. The orange and blue curves are the response curves, where the REs were 4.8 kΩ and 32 kΩ. The responses are normalized at 17 GHz. The black curve is the response of the reference PIN diode without the equalizer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured optical frequency response and (b) VπL of MZM at DC under forward-biased condition. The RE and CE of the equalizer are 16 kΩ and 100 fF. The VπL with a bias current of 120 μA is 0.31 V·cm, at which the frequency response shows flat responses in the low frequency region.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Set up of 25-Gb/s large signal modulation experiment. (b) 25-Gb/s output optical waveform of PIN-diode-based phase shifter with RC passive equalizer operated using 2.8-Vpp NRZ standard signals.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Phase-shift caused in each arm of MZM during 25-Gb/s operations as function of driving-voltage amplitude for various bias conditions Ibias. The inset shows the I-V curve of the one phase shifter with equalizer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Real and imaginary parts of extracted impedances of one of phase shifters of fabricated MZM, extracted from measured S11-reflection with Ibiass of 120 μA and 200 μA (solid curves). The dotted lines are the fitting curves obtained using the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 1 (a).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Extracted electrical parameters of PIN-diodes from equivalent-circuit analysis. (a) CF, (b) RF, (c) RS, (d) CF*RF parameters of PIN diode under forward-biased condition, (e) I-V curve, and (f) Qπ of PIN diode.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Equivalent circuit of equalizer. (b) Total capacitance of equalizer TEG. The blue dotted curve shows the analytical calculation results of the Ctotal when using the parallel plate capacitor. (c) Measured resistance of RE from I-V measurements.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Equivalent circuit of MZM with embedded RC passive equalizer and circuit parameters of 60-μm-length phase shifter. (b) Calculated optical frequency responses under forward-biased condition, where Ibias ranges from 20 to 120 μA.

Equations (1)

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d Q F dV C F 1+jω C F R S ,when R S << R F .

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