Abstract

We present a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip. The chip consists of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined. In addition to absorption in the filters, etalon effects add additional spectral features which improve the precision of the device. Comparing the measurements from the device to a commercial wavelength meter and to an atomic reference, we found that the device has picometer-level precision and picometer-scale drift over a period longer than a month.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. C. Coffey, “Wavelength meters: How to select a wavelength meter,” LFW (2009). Retrieved 9/17/2015.
  2. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  5. “Bristol 521 series specification sheet,” Tech. rep., Bristol Instruments (2015).
  6. “Ocean optics HR4000 specifications,” Tech. rep., Ocean Optics(2015).
  7. J. D. White and R. E. Scholten, “Compact diffraction grating laser wavemeter with sub-picometer accuracy and picowatt sensitivity using a webcam imaging sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 113104 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. F. Nabiev, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, L. E. Eng, and K.-Y. Lau, “Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector,” U.S. Patent 5,760,419 (1998).
  9. M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22, 27300–27308 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. Fox, R. Scholten, M. Walkiewicz, and R. Drullinger, “A reliable, compact, and low-cost Michelson wavemeter for laser wavelength measurement,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 624–630 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Redding, S. M. Popoff, and H. Cao, “All-fiber spectrometer based on speckle pattern reconstruction,” Opt. Express 21, 6584–6600 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Roy, S. Chaudhuri, and C. Unnikrishnan, “A simple and inexpensive electronic wavelength-meter using a dual-output photodiode,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 571–573 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. “TCS3414 datasheet,” Tech. rep., ams AG (2011).
  14. J. J. Snyder, “Fizeau wavelength meter,” Laser Spectroscopy III IX, 419–420 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Bitte and T. Pfeifer, “Alternative methods for wavelength determination: interference filters and double photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE3823, 20–25 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

J. D. White and R. E. Scholten, “Compact diffraction grating laser wavemeter with sub-picometer accuracy and picowatt sensitivity using a webcam imaging sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 113104 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Roy, S. Chaudhuri, and C. Unnikrishnan, “A simple and inexpensive electronic wavelength-meter using a dual-output photodiode,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 571–573 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Fox, R. Scholten, M. Walkiewicz, and R. Drullinger, “A reliable, compact, and low-cost Michelson wavemeter for laser wavelength measurement,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 624–630 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. F. Nabiev, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, L. E. Eng, and K.-Y. Lau, “Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector,” U.S. Patent 5,760,419 (1998).

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. J. Snyder, “Fizeau wavelength meter,” Laser Spectroscopy III IX, 419–420 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bitte, F.

F. Bitte and T. Pfeifer, “Alternative methods for wavelength determination: interference filters and double photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE3823, 20–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Cao, H.

Cerutti, L.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

R. F. Nabiev, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, L. E. Eng, and K.-Y. Lau, “Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector,” U.S. Patent 5,760,419 (1998).

Chaudhuri, S.

S. Roy, S. Chaudhuri, and C. Unnikrishnan, “A simple and inexpensive electronic wavelength-meter using a dual-output photodiode,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 571–573 (2005).
[Crossref]

Coffey, V. C.

V. C. Coffey, “Wavelength meters: How to select a wavelength meter,” LFW (2009). Retrieved 9/17/2015.

Drullinger, R.

P. Fox, R. Scholten, M. Walkiewicz, and R. Drullinger, “A reliable, compact, and low-cost Michelson wavemeter for laser wavelength measurement,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 624–630 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eng, L. E.

R. F. Nabiev, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, L. E. Eng, and K.-Y. Lau, “Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector,” U.S. Patent 5,760,419 (1998).

Fox, P.

P. Fox, R. Scholten, M. Walkiewicz, and R. Drullinger, “A reliable, compact, and low-cost Michelson wavemeter for laser wavelength measurement,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 624–630 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, J.

Ito, N.

Kasuya, T.

N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kato, H.

N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
[Crossref]

Konishi, N.

N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
[Crossref]

Lau, K.-Y.

R. F. Nabiev, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, L. E. Eng, and K.-Y. Lau, “Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector,” U.S. Patent 5,760,419 (1998).

Malik, A.

Muneeb, M.

Nabiev, R. F.

R. F. Nabiev, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, L. E. Eng, and K.-Y. Lau, “Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector,” U.S. Patent 5,760,419 (1998).

Pathak, S.

Pfeifer, T.

F. Bitte and T. Pfeifer, “Alternative methods for wavelength determination: interference filters and double photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE3823, 20–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Popoff, S. M.

Redding, B.

Rodriguez, J.

Roelkens, G.

Roy, S.

S. Roy, S. Chaudhuri, and C. Unnikrishnan, “A simple and inexpensive electronic wavelength-meter using a dual-output photodiode,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 571–573 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ruocco, A.

Ryckeboer, E.

Sanchez, D.

Scholten, R.

P. Fox, R. Scholten, M. Walkiewicz, and R. Drullinger, “A reliable, compact, and low-cost Michelson wavemeter for laser wavelength measurement,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 624–630 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scholten, R. E.

J. D. White and R. E. Scholten, “Compact diffraction grating laser wavemeter with sub-picometer accuracy and picowatt sensitivity using a webcam imaging sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 113104 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

Snyder, J. J.

J. J. Snyder, “Fizeau wavelength meter,” Laser Spectroscopy III IX, 419–420 (1977).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
[Crossref]

Taira, Y.

N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

Tournié, E.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Unnikrishnan, C.

S. Roy, S. Chaudhuri, and C. Unnikrishnan, “A simple and inexpensive electronic wavelength-meter using a dual-output photodiode,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 571–573 (2005).
[Crossref]

Walkiewicz, M.

P. Fox, R. Scholten, M. Walkiewicz, and R. Drullinger, “A reliable, compact, and low-cost Michelson wavemeter for laser wavelength measurement,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 624–630 (1999).
[Crossref]

White, J. D.

J. D. White and R. E. Scholten, “Compact diffraction grating laser wavemeter with sub-picometer accuracy and picowatt sensitivity using a webcam imaging sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 113104 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (2)

P. Fox, R. Scholten, M. Walkiewicz, and R. Drullinger, “A reliable, compact, and low-cost Michelson wavemeter for laser wavelength measurement,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 624–630 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Roy, S. Chaudhuri, and C. Unnikrishnan, “A simple and inexpensive electronic wavelength-meter using a dual-output photodiode,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 571–573 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Konishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Taira, H. Kato, and T. Kasuya, “High precision wavelength meter with Fabry-Perot optics,” Appl. Phys. 25, 311–316 (1981).
[Crossref]

Laser Spectroscopy III (1)

J. J. Snyder, “Fizeau wavelength meter,” Laser Spectroscopy III IX, 419–420 (1977).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. D. White and R. E. Scholten, “Compact diffraction grating laser wavemeter with sub-picometer accuracy and picowatt sensitivity using a webcam imaging sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 113104 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U.S. Patent (1)

R. F. Nabiev, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, L. E. Eng, and K.-Y. Lau, “Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector,” U.S. Patent 5,760,419 (1998).

Other (5)

V. C. Coffey, “Wavelength meters: How to select a wavelength meter,” LFW (2009). Retrieved 9/17/2015.

“Bristol 521 series specification sheet,” Tech. rep., Bristol Instruments (2015).

“Ocean optics HR4000 specifications,” Tech. rep., Ocean Optics(2015).

“TCS3414 datasheet,” Tech. rep., ams AG (2011).

F. Bitte and T. Pfeifer, “Alternative methods for wavelength determination: interference filters and double photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE3823, 20–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Etalon effects in the color sensors. The plots show the number of counts measured on the red channel normalized to the number of counts on the clear channel. For the plots on the left, this ratio is plotted as a function of the temperature of the color sensors while the wavelength of the laser is held constant. For the plots on the right, the ratio is plotted as a function of the wavelength of the laser as the temperature is held constant. The upper plots were made using FN-package sensors, and the lower plots using CS-package sensors. The data points represented by the gray lines were taken using a sensor that had been sanded in an attempt to randomize reflections off of the first surface of the detector. The data points represented by the black lines were taken using an unsanded sensor. Ratios larger than one are likely due to a maximum in the etalon transmission for the red channel occurring at nearly the same wavelength as a minimum etalon transmission for the clear channel.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Determining the wavelength. The confidence curve, calculated by taking differences from the measured value and the calibration curves for each color channel as a function of wavelength, is shown for measurements of a laser beam at three different wavelengths. The curves are shown on a semi-log (upper) and linear (lower) scale. The vertical black lines indicate the laser wavelength determined by the commercial wavelength meter for the three measurements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calibration drift as a function of time for several long data sets. Lines (a), (b), and (c) show the difference of the wavelength measured by our device from the actual wavelength of the laser as a function of time. The readings from the commercial meter that go along with the data sets (b) and (c) are plotted as dotted lines. To reduce the number of points plotted, measurements were averaged into bins an hour in length. The second y axis gives the drift of the laser frequency in GHz. Because the conversion from wavelength to frequency error is dependent on the exact wavelength, the scale was calculated using the formula d f = (c/λ2), using a wavelength λ of 657.45 nm. Because both the scan range of the laser and the drifts are small, the GHz scale, while approximate, is quite accurate for the data taken with the red laser. Labels on the GHz scale should be multiplied by 2.03 for data taken with the blue laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Error as a function of wavelength for a long data set. The same data plotted in line (a) on Fig. 3 is plotted here as a function of the wavelength measured by the commercial meter. Each point in each plot is the average of the 20 measurements made at a particular laser piezo voltage. In the top-most plot, the data points taken during the first five hours of the data are shown. These are the data points which were used to calibrate the device for this experiment. The other plots each show a 5-hour long segment of data starting 10, 20, 30, and 40 days into the experiment. The second y axis gives the drift of the laser frequency in GHz. Because the conversion from wavelength to frequency error is dependent on the exact wavelength, the scale was calculated using the formula df = (c/λ2), using a wavelength λ of 657.45 nm. Because both the scan range of the laser and the drifts are small, the GHz scale, while approximate, is quite accurate.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Allan deviance. The Allan deviance for the data shown in Fig. 3 is plotted. Lines (a), (b), and (c) were calculated from the data shown in lines (a), (b), and (c) in Fig. 3. Plots (d) and (e) were calculated from the wavelengths measured using the commercial wavemeter at the same time data sets (b) and (c) were taken, respectively. Unlike Fig. 3, the data was not averaged prior to calculating the Allan deviances. Once the Allan deviance curves were calculated, deviance data was grouped and averaged to make the points shown on the plots. The standard deviation of the Allan deviation within groups is shown as error bars on each plot. The second y axis gives the drift of the laser frequency in GHz. Because the conversion from wavelength to frequency error is dependent on the exact wavelength, the scale was calculated using the formula df = (c/λ2), using a wavelength λ of 657.45 nm. Because both the scan range of the laser and the drifts are small, the GHz scale, while approximate, is quite accurate for the data taken with the red laser. Labels on the GHz scale should be multiplied by 2.03 for data taken with the blue laser.

Equations (3)

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R ( λ ) = r ( λ ) r ( λ ) + g ( λ ) + b ( λ ) + c ( λ ) .
C r ( λ ) = ( f r ( λ ) R f r ( λ ) ) 2 .
C ( λ ) = C r ( λ ) e r r 2 + C g ( λ ) e r g 2 + C b ( λ ) e r b 2 + C c ( λ ) e r c 2 .

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