Abstract

The mode property and light propagation in a tapered silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire with angled sidewalls is analyzed. Mode hybridization is observed and mode conversion between the TM fundamental mode and higher-order TE modes happens when light propagates in a waveguide taper which is used very often in the design of photonic integrated devices. This mode conversion ratio is possible to be very high (even close to 100%) when the taper is long enough to be adiabatic, which might be useful for some applications of multimode photonics. When the mode conversion is undesired to avoid any excess loss as well as crosstalk for photonic integrated circuits, one can depress the mode conversion by compensating the vertical asymmetry in the way of reducing the sidewall angle or introducing an optimal refractive index for the upper-cladding. It is also possible to eliminate the undesired mode conversion almost and improve the desired mode conversion greatly by introducing an abrupt junction connecting two sections with different widths to jump over the mode hybridization region.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2014 (3)

2013 (5)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (5)

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, “Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2428–2433 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on alpha-Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. Tarr, “Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1308–1318 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

1993 (3)

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, “A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 345–347 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fiber-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. Shani, C. Henry, R. Kistler, K. Orlowsky, and D. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(23), 2389–2391 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(2), 385–391 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, D.

Y. Shani, C. Henry, R. Kistler, K. Orlowsky, and D. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(23), 2389–2391 (1989).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

Almeida, V. R.

Baba, T.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Estimation of Polarization Crosstalk at a Micro-Bend in Si-Photonic Wire Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 520–525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Baets, R. G.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barkai, A.

Barrios, C. A.

Barwicz, T.

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

S. Pathak, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Design trade-offs for silicon-on-insulator-based AWGs for (de)multiplexer applications,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 2961–2964 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Loss reduction in silicon nanophotonic waveguide micro-bends through etch profile improvement,” Opt. Commun. 284(8), 2141–2144 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Bowers, J. E.

Boyraz, O.

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bruckner, H.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fiber-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-H.

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.-W.

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(2), 385–391 (1985).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

Da Ros, F.

Dai, D.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and S. He, “Silicon multimode photonic integrated devices for on-chip mode-division-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 773–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode conversion in tapered submicron silicon ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13425–13439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Novel concept for ultracompact polarization splitter-rotator based on silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10940–10949 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, D. Dai, B. Yang, Z. Sheng, and S. He, “Characteristic analysis of tapered lens fibers for light focusing and butt-coupling to a silicon rib waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), 672–678 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, “Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2428–2433 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on alpha-Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

De Cort, W. A. D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Debackere, P. P. P.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Ding, L.

Ding, Y.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Elek, N.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, S.

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fukazawa, T.

Fukuda, H.

Gabay, R.

Gan, F.

Gao, S.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hadley, G.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hallynck, E.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

He, S.

D. Dai, J. Wang, and S. He, “Silicon multimode photonic integrated devices for on-chip mode-division-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 773–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, D. Dai, B. Yang, Z. Sheng, and S. He, “Characteristic analysis of tapered lens fibers for light focusing and butt-coupling to a silicon rib waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), 672–678 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, “Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2428–2433 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on alpha-Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Henry, C.

Y. Shani, C. Henry, R. Kistler, K. Orlowsky, and D. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(23), 2389–2391 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hirono, T.

Huang, B.

Huang, Y.

Ishida, K.

Itabashi, S.

Izhaky, N.

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jain, S.

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

Jones, R.

Kadota, Y.

Kasaya, K.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, “A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 345–347 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

Kistler, R.

Y. Shani, C. Henry, R. Kistler, K. Orlowsky, and D. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(23), 2389–2391 (1989).
[Crossref]

Klem, J.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

Kohl, A.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fiber-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kohtoku, M.

Kondo, Y.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, “A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 345–347 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kramer, A.

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

Laich, M.

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Li, C.

Li, H.

Li, L.

Li, W.

Li, Y.-H.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

Liu, L.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on alpha-Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q. Y.

Liu, W.

Lo, G.-Q.

Lopinski, G.

Luebbert, C. C.

Luksic, K.

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

Malik, B. H.

Mikkelsen, J. C.

Mitomi, O.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, “A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 345–347 (1993).
[Crossref]

Motegi, A.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Naganuma, M.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, “A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 345–347 (1993).
[Crossref]

Niu, B.

Noguchi, Y.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, “A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 345–347 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ohno, F.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

Oku, S.

Olzhausen, H.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fiber-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Orlowsky, K.

Y. Shani, C. Henry, R. Kistler, K. Orlowsky, and D. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(23), 2389–2391 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

Panepucci, R.

Pang, A.

Paniccia, M.

Pathak, S.

Peters, J. D.

Peucheret, C.

Picard, M.-J.

Poon, A. W.

Poon, J. K. S.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

Qiu, C.

Rahman, B. M. A.

Roelkens, G.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacher, W. D.

Sakai, A.

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwander, T.

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S.

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Loss reduction in silicon nanophotonic waveguide micro-bends through etch profile improvement,” Opt. Commun. 284(8), 2141–2144 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Shani, Y.

Y. Shani, C. Henry, R. Kistler, K. Orlowsky, and D. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(23), 2389–2391 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Z.

Shibata, Y.

Shinojima, H.

Smith, R.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

Snipes, M.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

Soltani, M.

Somasiri, N.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spatschek, G.

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, C.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Tarr, N. G.

Taylor, B. J. F.

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Vachon, M.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. Pathak, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Design trade-offs for silicon-on-insulator-based AWGs for (de)multiplexer applications,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 2961–2964 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Loss reduction in silicon nanophotonic waveguide micro-bends through etch profile improvement,” Opt. Commun. 284(8), 2141–2144 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Vawter, G.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

Vermeulen, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13565–13571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and S. He, “Silicon multimode photonic integrated devices for on-chip mode-division-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 773–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Warth, M.

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

Wendt, J.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

Westergren, U.

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wosinski, L.

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on alpha-Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, A.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, J.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Yang, B.

Yang, L.

Ye, W. N.

Yebo, N. A.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, W. A. D. De Cort, N. A. Yebo, E. Hallynck, K. De Vos, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient tapering to the fundamental Quasi-TM mode in asymmetrical waveguides,” in ECIO 2010 (2010), pp. 1-2.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yoshikuni, Y.

Zengerle, R.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fiber-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Zou, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Shani, C. Henry, R. Kistler, K. Orlowsky, and D. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(23), 2389–2391 (1989).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fiber-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Design and fabrication of ultra-small overlapped AWG demultiplexer based on alpha-Si nanowire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 400–402 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Schwander, S. Fischer, A. Kramer, M. Laich, K. Luksic, G. Spatschek, and M. Warth, “Simple and low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling by integrated field-matching waveguide in InP,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 326–328 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. A. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, “A simple laterally tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 345–347 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).

J. Lightwave Technol. (9)

C. Qiu, Z. Sheng, H. Li, W. Liu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Fabrication, characterization and loss analysis of silicon nanowaveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2303–2307 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kohtoku, T. Hirono, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Control of higher order leaky modes in deep-ridge waveguides and application to low-crosstalk arrayed waveguide gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 499–508 (2004).
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D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, “Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2428–2433 (2006).
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FIMMWAVE/FIMMPROP, Photon Design Ltd. http://www.photond.com .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The SEM picture for a SOI nanowire with angled sidewalls (from [37]).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Cross section for an SOI nanowire with angled sidewalls (the angle is θ>0).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated effective indices for the eigen-modes of SOI nanowires with different sidewall angles θ. (a) θ = 0°; (b) θ = 2°; (c) θ = 8°; (d) θ = 15°; (e) θ = −15°. Here the total height of the Si layer is H = 220nm, and the cladding is SiO2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated mode polarization ratio γx = Ex2/(Ex2 + Ey2) for SOI nanowires with θ = 8°. Here the total height of the Si core layer is hco = 220nm, and the cladding is SiO2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Field profiles (Ex and Ey) for modes #2 and #4 of a SOI nanowire with θ = 8°, wco = 0.628μm, and ncl = 1.444 (SiO2). (a) mode #2; (b) mode #4. The total height of the Si core layer is hco = 220nm .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic configuration of a taper based on an SOI nanowire with angled sidewalls; (b) Calculated mode conversion ratio when light propagates along a taper whose width varies from w1 to w2; (c) Simulated light propagation in the designed taper with w1 = 0.56μm and w2 = 0.70μm when the TM0 mode is launched. (d) Simulated light propagation in the designed taper with w1 = 0.60μm and w2 = 0.74μm when the TM0 mode is launched. Here the sidewall angle θ = 8°.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Calculated mode conversion ratio when light propagates along a 40μm-long taper as the sidewall angle varies from −15° to 15°; (b) Simulated light propagation along a 40μm-long taper when θ = 2°. The width varies from w1 = 0.5μm to w2 = 1.0μm,and the TM0 mode is launched.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Calculated mode conversion ratio when light propagates along a 40μm-long taper as the refractive index ncl of the upper-cladding varies from 1.444 to 1.75; (b) Simulated light propagation along a 40μm-long taper when ncl = 1.62. Here the TM0 mode is launched, and θ = 8°, w1 = 0.5μm, w2 = 1.0μm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Calculated mode conversion ratio at a junction as the width w2 varies; (b) Simulated light propagation in the designed junction with w2 = 0.78μm. Here w1 = 0.5μm, θ = 8°, and ncl = 1.444.

Equations (1)

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γ x = S | E x 2 |dxdy S | E x 2 |dxdy+ S | E y 2 |dxdy ,

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