Abstract

The combined effects of a few mechanisms for emission efficiency enhancement produced in the overgrowth of the transparent conductor layer of Ga-doped ZnO (GaZnO) on a surface Ag-nanoparticle (NP) coated light-emitting diode (LED), including surface plasmon (SP) coupling, current spreading, light extraction, and contact resistivity reduction, are demonstrated. With a relatively higher GaZnO growth temperature (350 °C), melted Ag NPs can be used as catalyst for forming GaZnO nanoneedles (NNs) through the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode such that light extraction efficiency can be increased. Meanwhile, residual Ag NPs are buried in a simultaneously grown GaZnO layer for inducing SP coupling. With a relatively lower GaZnO growth temperature (250 °C), all the Ag NPs are preserved for generating a stronger SP coupling effect. By using a thin annealed GaZnO interlayer on p-GaN before Ag NP fabrication, the contact resistivity at the GaZnO/p-GaN interface and hence the overall device resistance can be reduced. Although the use of this interlayer blue-shifts the localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the fabricated Ag NPs from the quantum well emission wavelength of the current study (535 nm) such that the SP coupling effect becomes weaker, it is useful for enhancing the SP coupling effect in an LED with a shorter emission wavelength.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Oh and I. Seo, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with gallium-doped ZnO transparent conducting oxide,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 1232–1236 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

W. L. Bi, C. L. Ho, and M. C. Wu, “Ga-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition and the application to blue light-emitting diodes as a current spreading layer,” ECS Solid State Lett. 2(11), Q98–Q100 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. S. Kwak, H. H. Lee, and H. K. Kim, “Linear facing target sputtering of the epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer on GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(41), 415301 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, K. C. Shen, C. Y. Yin, C. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High performance of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers using MOCVD for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14452–14457 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gu, T. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Improved ohmic contact of Ga-doped ZnO to p-GaN by using copper sulfide intermediate layers,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 76–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083110 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Z. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yang, Y. Duan, and Y. Zeng, “A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs,” J. Semiconductors 31(9), 094002 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lim, K. H. Lee, and D. C. Lim, “Enhanced performance in GaN light emitting diode by patterned ZnO transparent conducting oxide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 57(5), 1229–1232 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Park, K. J. Byeon, K. Y. Yang, J. Y. Cho, and H. Lee, “The fabrication of a patterned ZnO nanorod array for high brightness LEDs,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. O’Dwyer, M. Szachowicz, G. Visimberga, V. Lavayen, S. B. Newcomb, and C. M. S. Torres, “Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(4), 239–244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, Y. S. Lu, and K. W. Shu, “Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxide films applied to GaN-based light-emitting diodes for improving light extraction efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(12), 1211–1218 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. J. Ko, Y. F. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, and D. C. Look, “Ga-doped ZnO films grown on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3761–3763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baek, J. H.

Bi, W. L.

W. L. Bi, C. L. Ho, and M. C. Wu, “Ga-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition and the application to blue light-emitting diodes as a current spreading layer,” ECS Solid State Lett. 2(11), Q98–Q100 (2013).
[Crossref]

Byeon, K. J.

H. Park, K. J. Byeon, K. Y. Yang, J. Y. Cho, and H. Lee, “The fabrication of a patterned ZnO nanorod array for high brightness LEDs,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Chang, C. H.

Chang, T. W.

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W. M.

Chang, W. Y.

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. S.

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

Chen, R.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. P.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. H.

Chen, X. D.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

H. J. Ko, Y. F. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, and D. C. Look, “Ga-doped ZnO films grown on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3761–3763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. H.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J. Y.

H. Park, K. J. Byeon, K. Y. Yang, J. Y. Cho, and H. Lee, “The fabrication of a patterned ZnO nanorod array for high brightness LEDs,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. Y.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, M. Y.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. S.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. H.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chuang, W. H.

Chung, W. L.

Dai, K.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duan, Y.

Z. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yang, Y. Duan, and Y. Zeng, “A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs,” J. Semiconductors 31(9), 094002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujita, Y.

Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, J. R.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, W.

W. Gu, T. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Improved ohmic contact of Ga-doped ZnO to p-GaN by using copper sulfide intermediate layers,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 76–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, G. R.

Hiromitsu, I.

Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. L.

W. L. Bi, C. L. Ho, and M. C. Wu, “Ga-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition and the application to blue light-emitting diodes as a current spreading layer,” ECS Solid State Lett. 2(11), Q98–Q100 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. K.

H. J. Ko, Y. F. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, and D. C. Look, “Ga-doped ZnO films grown on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3761–3763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

Hsiao, C. Y.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M. H.

Hsu, T. C.

Hu, X.

Huang, C. F.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. Y.

Huang, D.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. J.

Izyumskaya, N.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, L. W.

Jeon, D. M.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeon, D. W.

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, Y. H. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. S. Lee, J. S. Kim, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Enhancement of light output power in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using hydrothermally grown ZnO micro-walls,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10597–10604 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J. H.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, M. S.

H. Jeong, Y. H. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. S. Lee, J. S. Kim, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Enhancement of light output power in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using hydrothermally grown ZnO micro-walls,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10597–10604 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, M. J.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jo, D. S.

Ju, J. W.

Jung, G. Y.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. W.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kiang, Y. W.

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

H. S. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. S. Kwak, H. H. Lee, and H. K. Kim, “Linear facing target sputtering of the epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer on GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(41), 415301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, I.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. M.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

Kim, J. W.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. W.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

Ko, H. J.

H. J. Ko, Y. F. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, and D. C. Look, “Ga-doped ZnO films grown on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3761–3763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. H.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Kuo, Y.

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kvit, A. V.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwak, J. S.

H. S. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. S. Kwak, H. H. Lee, and H. K. Kim, “Linear facing target sputtering of the epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer on GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(41), 415301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, C. H.

Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lavayen, V.

C. O’Dwyer, M. Szachowicz, G. Visimberga, V. Lavayen, S. B. Newcomb, and C. M. S. Torres, “Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(4), 239–244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. Park, K. J. Byeon, K. Y. Yang, J. Y. Cho, and H. Lee, “The fabrication of a patterned ZnO nanorod array for high brightness LEDs,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. H.

H. S. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. S. Kwak, H. H. Lee, and H. K. Kim, “Linear facing target sputtering of the epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer on GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(41), 415301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, I. H.

Lee, J. H.

H. S. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. S. Kwak, H. H. Lee, and H. K. Kim, “Linear facing target sputtering of the epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer on GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(41), 415301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

J. H. Lim, K. H. Lee, and D. C. Lim, “Enhanced performance in GaN light emitting diode by patterned ZnO transparent conducting oxide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 57(5), 1229–1232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, Y. S. Lu, and K. W. Shu, “Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxide films applied to GaN-based light-emitting diodes for improving light extraction efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(12), 1211–1218 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, S. Y.

M. Y. Choi, D. Choi, M. J. Jin, I. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21(21), 2185–2189 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, C. W.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, D. H.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. H.

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, D. C.

J. H. Lim, K. H. Lee, and D. C. Lim, “Enhanced performance in GaN light emitting diode by patterned ZnO transparent conducting oxide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 57(5), 1229–1232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, J. H.

J. H. Lim, K. H. Lee, and D. C. Lim, “Enhanced performance in GaN light emitting diode by patterned ZnO transparent conducting oxide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 57(5), 1229–1232 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, P. S.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. Y.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. Y.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yang, Y. Duan, and Y. Zeng, “A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs,” J. Semiconductors 31(9), 094002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lo, K. Y.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

Look, D. C.

H. J. Ko, Y. F. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, and D. C. Look, “Ga-doped ZnO films grown on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3761–3763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. F.

Lu, Y. C.

Lu, Y. S.

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, Y. S. Lu, and K. W. Shu, “Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxide films applied to GaN-based light-emitting diodes for improving light extraction efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(12), 1211–1218 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, X. C.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morkoç, H.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Newcomb, S. B.

C. O’Dwyer, M. Szachowicz, G. Visimberga, V. Lavayen, S. B. Newcomb, and C. M. S. Torres, “Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(4), 239–244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Dwyer, C.

C. O’Dwyer, M. Szachowicz, G. Visimberga, V. Lavayen, S. B. Newcomb, and C. M. S. Torres, “Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(4), 239–244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, M. S.

M. S. Oh and I. Seo, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with gallium-doped ZnO transparent conducting oxide,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 1232–1236 (2014).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

H. Park, K. J. Byeon, K. Y. Yang, J. Y. Cho, and H. Lee, “The fabrication of a patterned ZnO nanorod array for high brightness LEDs,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

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T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
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Sahoo, T.

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C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
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C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
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C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
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K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083110 (2011).
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Su, C. Y.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
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C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
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C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
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Suh, E. K.

Sun, H. D.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
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C. O’Dwyer, M. Szachowicz, G. Visimberga, V. Lavayen, S. B. Newcomb, and C. M. S. Torres, “Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(4), 239–244 (2009).
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Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
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Ting, S. Y.

Torres, C. M. S.

C. O’Dwyer, M. Szachowicz, G. Visimberga, V. Lavayen, S. B. Newcomb, and C. M. S. Torres, “Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(4), 239–244 (2009).
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Tsai, M. A.

Tu, C. G.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
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Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
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C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
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C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tun, C. J.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Visimberga, G.

C. O’Dwyer, M. Szachowicz, G. Visimberga, V. Lavayen, S. B. Newcomb, and C. M. S. Torres, “Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(4), 239–244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voyles, P. M.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
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Wang, J. Y.

Wang, L.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083110 (2011).
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Z. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yang, Y. Duan, and Y. Zeng, “A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs,” J. Semiconductors 31(9), 094002 (2010).
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Weng, C. M.

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
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H. J. Ko, Y. F. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, and D. C. Look, “Ga-doped ZnO films grown on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3761–3763 (2000).
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H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
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J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuu, D. S.

Xiong, Q. H.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
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Xu, T.

W. Gu, T. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Improved ohmic contact of Ga-doped ZnO to p-GaN by using copper sulfide intermediate layers,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 76–80 (2013).
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Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
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C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
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Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
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C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
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C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
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Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
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C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
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D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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Yang, C. S.

Yang, H.

Z. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yang, Y. Duan, and Y. Zeng, “A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs,” J. Semiconductors 31(9), 094002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. K.

Yang, K. Y.

H. Park, K. J. Byeon, K. Y. Yang, J. Y. Cho, and H. Lee, “The fabrication of a patterned ZnO nanorod array for high brightness LEDs,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355304 (2010).
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Yankovich, A. B.

H. Y. Liu, X. Li, S. Liu, X. Ni, M. Wu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, A. B. Yankovich, A. V. Kvit, P. M. Voyles, and H. Morkoç, “InGaN based light emitting diodes utilizing Ga doped ZnO as a highly transparent contact to p-GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 8(5), 1548–1551 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, T.

H. J. Ko, Y. F. Chen, S. K. Hong, H. Wenisch, T. Yao, and D. C. Look, “Ga-doped ZnO films grown on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3761–3763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y. F.

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. Kuo, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diodes induced by surface Ag nanoparticles on dielectric interlayers,” Plasmonics 10(5), 1029–1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(19), 195706 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, D. M.

Yeh, J. H.

Yen, K. Y.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Hsiao, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, K. Y. Lo, T. P. Chen, C. H. Lin, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 387, 91–95 (2014).
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K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
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Yin, C. Y.

Yoshida, Y.

Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, K.

Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Zeng, Y.

Z. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yang, Y. Duan, and Y. Zeng, “A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs,” J. Semiconductors 31(9), 094002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

W. Gu, T. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Improved ohmic contact of Ga-doped ZnO to p-GaN by using copper sulfide intermediate layers,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 76–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, E.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Y. F. Yao, C. G. Tu, T. W. Chang, H. T. Chen, C. M. Weng, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Growth of highly conductive Ga-doped ZnO nanoneedles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(19), 10525–10533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) and (b) [(c) and (d)]: Plan-view SEM images of the top surface before and after GaZnO growth, respectively, of sample A-350 (A-250).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) [(c) and (d)]: Plan-view SEM images of the top surface before and after GaZnO growth, respectively, of sample C-350 (C-250).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) and (b): Cross-sectional TEM images near the GaZnO/p-GaN interfaces of samples A-350 and C-250, respectively. In part (a), the darker body labeled by “NN” corresponds to the “root” of a GaZnO NN. The dark spots correspond to the preserved Ag NPs with some of them indicated by the thicker arrows.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a): Schematic demonstration of the general structure of the fabricated LED devices (except the four reference samples). (b): Plan-view SEM image of an LED device of sample A-350. (c): Magnified SEM image in an area around the vertical arrow in part (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a): Transmission spectra of samples A-350 and A’-350 before and after GaZnO growth. Before GaZnO growth, the curves are labeled by “A-350/NP” and “A’-350/NP”. The fitting curves of Rayleigh-like scattering are labeled by “RS”. The curves for the calibrated LSP resonance depressions are labeled by “A-350/SP” and “A’-350/SP”. (b): Similar transmission spectra of samples A-250 and A’-250. (c): Similar transmission spectra of samples C-350 and C’-350. (d): Similar transmission spectra of samples C-250 and C’-250. For comparison, the transmission spectra of samples R-2 and R’-2 are also shown in these figures. The vertical dashed lines roughly indicate the QW emission wavelength (~535 nm).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Integrated PL intensity variations with temperature of samples A-350, A-250, C-350, C-250, R-1, R’-1, R-2, and R’-2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a): I-V curves of samples A-350, A’-350, B-350, B’-350, R-1, R’-1, R-2, and R’-2. The inset shows the magnified portion in the voltage range of 4.6-5.4 V. (b): Similar I-V curves of samples A-250, A’-250, B-250, and B’-250. (c): Similar I-V curves of samples C-350, C’-350, D-350, and D’-350. (d): Similar I-V curves of samples C-250, C’-250, D-250, and D’-250.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a)-(d): Variations of normalized output intensity with injected current for the samples in Figs. 7(a)-7(d), respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a)-(d): Relative efficiency variations with injected current for the samples in Figs. 8(a)-8(d), respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Key Structure Features of the 20 LED Samples Prepared for Comparing their Performances.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characterization Results of the 20 LED Samples, Including Transmission Data, IQE, Device Resistance, Normalized Output Intensity, and Efficiency Droop Range

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