Abstract

We demonstrate the first observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a high-Q whispering gallery mode tellurite microsphere. Tellurite glass with composition of 70TeO2-20ZnO-5Na2O-5La2O3 (molar ratio) was prepared in-house using a melt-quenching technique. Moreover, tellurite microspheres with Q in excess of 13 millions at 1550 nm were fabricated by melting tellurite microwires using a CO2 laser. By pumping the tellurite microspheres with a tunable single frequency laser, SBS is further realized with a threshold as low as 0.58 mW. At last, the beat notes between the pump and the Stokes signals were measured, which indicated the Brillouin frequency shift is at the 8.2 GHz band for our tellurite glass. Our results could propel significant applications utilizing SBS by employing tellurite microspheres.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11(3), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Guo, K. Che, Z. Cai, S. Liu, G. Gu, C. Chu, P. Zhang, H. Fu, Z. Luo, and H. Xu, “Ultralow-threshold cascaded Brillouin microlaser for tunable microwave generation,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4971–4974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

Y. Ruan, K. Boyd, H. Ji, A. Francois, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Munch, and T. M. Monro, “Tellurite microspheres for nanoparticle sensing and novel light sources,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11995–12006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Huang, C. Guo, R. Bao, and X. Wang, “Design and fabrication of a silica optical micro-kayak cavity on a silicon chip,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(5), 052201 (2013).

2012 (3)

2009 (3)

A. Lin, A. Zhang, E. J. Bushong, and J. Toulouse, “Solid-core tellurite glass fiber for infrared and nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16716–16721 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

Abedin, K. S.

Bahl, G.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11(3), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, R.

Beugnot, J.-C.

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, K.

Bushong, E. J.

Byrnes, A.

Cai, Z.

Carmon, T.

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Che, K.

Chembo, Y. K.

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

Chipouline, A.

Choi, D. Y.

Chu, C.

Deych, L.

Diallo, S.

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, C.-H.

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Egorov, O.

Ezekiel, S.

Francois, A.

Fu, H.

Fu, W.

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, G.

Guo, C.

Guo, G. C.

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, K.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11(3), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Ji, H.

Jiang, S.

J. Wu, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “1.5-µm-band thulium-doped microsphere laser originating from self-terminating transition,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10129–10133 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kieu, K.

Kim, J.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11(3), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klebanov, M.

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, M. C.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11(3), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lam, C. C.

Lederer, F.

Lee, H.

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Characterization of a high coherence, Brillouin microcavity laser on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20170–20180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, P. T.

Levy, S.

Li, E.

Li, J.

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Characterization of a high coherence, Brillouin microcavity laser on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20170–20180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

Lin, G.

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Luo, Z.

Luther-Davies, B.

Lyubin, V.

Madden, S.

Maleki, L.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

Martinenghi, R.

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

Munch, J.

Pant, R.

Peng, X.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pertsch, T.

Peyghambarian, N.

J. Wu, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “1.5-µm-band thulium-doped microsphere laser originating from self-terminating transition,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10129–10133 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Poulton, C. G.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Ruan, Y.

Saleh, K.

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scheuer, J.

Schmidt, C.

Shen, Z.

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S. P.

Song, F.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sylvestre, T.

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tomes, M.

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toulouse, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Vahala, K.

Vahala, K. J.

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Characterization of a high coherence, Brillouin microcavity laser on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20170–20180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11(3), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wu, J.

Xu, H.

Xu, L.

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Young, K.

Zadok, A.

Zarinetchi, F.

Zhang, A.

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Y. L.

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, C. L.

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Lin, S. Diallo, K. Saleh, R. Martinenghi, J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, and Y. K. Chembo, “Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231103 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Peng, F. Song, S. Jiang, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and L. Xu, “Fiber-taper-coupled L-band Er3+-doped tellurite glass microsphere laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1497–1499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Commun. (2)

J. Li, H. Lee, and K. J. Vahala, “Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2097 (2013).
[PubMed]

C.-H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Kim, M. C. Kuzyk, K. Han, H. Wang, and G. Bahl, “Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency,” Nat. Phys. 11(3), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Elsevier, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Tellurite microwire with diameter of ~200 μm. (b) Micrograph of a tellurite microsphere with a thin stem. The diameter of the microsphere is ~71 μm. (c) Normalized transmission spectrum of a 71 μm-diameter microsphere. (d) neff versus microsphere diameter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Scheme of the experimental setups. FG, function generator; ECDL, external cavity diode laser; PC, polarization controller; CIR, optical circulator, (1,2,3: port1, port2, port3); μ-sphere, microsphere. (b) Q factor measurement in the under-coupling condition; a linewidth of 18 MHz is marked. (c) Resonant linewidth broadening due to thermal effects; the PSS is −72 GHz/s. The doted green and violet line represent the original transmission and feedback for comparision.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized transmission and feedback with frequency sweeping range more than 10 GHz; 0,1…13,14 represent the WGM numbers. (b) A typical transmission and feedback power evolutions versus time when the SBS spectra are observed in an OSA; the PSS is set to −2.8 GHz/ms.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Optical spectra when the pump is in resonance (yellow solid line) and off resonance (gray doted line), respectively. (b) Experimental and fitted Brillouin power versus coupled pump power; a threshold of 0.58 mW is deduced.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 RF spectra with RBW of 2.5 MHz and ST of 100 ms. The inset is corresponding RF spectra with RBW of 250 kHz and ST of 15 s; two bandwidths of 11 MHz and 10 MHz corresponding to two microwave signals are marked respectively.

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