Abstract

Thus far, the vector field of light probed by a nanostructured super-oscillatory lens (SOL) has mostly been studied by approximate theoretical means. Here the first rigorous electromagnetic (EM) test has been presented through an established electromagnetic model solved by the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It is found through comparisons that scalar/vectorial theories currently used for designing the metal-film-coated SOL can effectively predict the on-axis intensity behind a SOL simulated by FDTD for both linearly and circularly polarized beams; however, they cannot reflect the true 3D EM vector field distribution particularly for the linearly polarized beam and imprecise results for the total electric energy density have appeared in certain transverse planes, e.g. a relative error as high as 26% is produced for the size of the main focus behind a SOL of 14μm large in diameter. Besides, it is found that current theories cannot be used for designing the glass-etched phase-type SOL.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  4. T. Liu, T. Shen, S. Yang, and Z. Jiang, “Subwavelength focusing by binary multi-annular plates: design theory and experiment,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035610 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (2)

T. Liu, T. Shen, S. Yang, and Z. Jiang, “Subwavelength focusing by binary multi-annular plates: design theory and experiment,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035610 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Design of a superoscillator lens for a polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(8), 1731–1735 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wen, Y. He, Y. Li, L. Chen, and G. Chen, “Super-oscillation focusing lens based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22163–22171 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Vectorial design of super-oscillatory lens,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15090–15101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. V. Kotlyar, S. S. Stafeev, Y. Liu, L. O’Faolain, and A. A. Kovalev, “Analysis of the shape of a subwavelength focal spot for the linearly polarized light,” Appl. Opt. 52(3), 330–339 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and J. Lin, “Creation of subwavelength light needle, equidistant multi-focus, and uniform light tunnel,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Modulation of a super-Gaussian optical needle with high-NA Fresnel zone plate,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2742–2745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, J. Tan, and J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. M. Huang and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-resolution without evanescent waves,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1249–1254 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Luk’yanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adamo, G.

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chad, J. E.

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, L.

Chen, Z.

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Luk’yanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dennis, M. R.

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

Huang, F. M.

F. M. Huang and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-resolution without evanescent waves,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1249–1254 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, K.

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

T. Liu, T. Shen, S. Yang, and Z. Jiang, “Subwavelength focusing by binary multi-annular plates: design theory and experiment,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035610 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kavanagh, K. L.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotlyar, V. V.

Kovalev, A. A.

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leathem, B.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and J. Lin, “Creation of subwavelength light needle, equidistant multi-focus, and uniform light tunnel,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lindberg, J.

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

T. Liu, J. Tan, and J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and J. Lin, “Creation of subwavelength light needle, equidistant multi-focus, and uniform light tunnel,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Vectorial design of super-oscillatory lens,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15090–15101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Modulation of a super-Gaussian optical needle with high-NA Fresnel zone plate,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2742–2745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, T. Shen, S. Yang, and Z. Jiang, “Subwavelength focusing by binary multi-annular plates: design theory and experiment,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035610 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Vectorial design of super-oscillatory lens,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15090–15101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and J. Lin, “Creation of subwavelength light needle, equidistant multi-focus, and uniform light tunnel,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, and J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Modulation of a super-Gaussian optical needle with high-NA Fresnel zone plate,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2742–2745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Luk’yanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKinnon, A.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Qiu, C.-W.

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajora, A.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, E. T. F.

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, T.

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savo, S.

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T.

T. Liu, T. Shen, S. Yang, and Z. Jiang, “Subwavelength focusing by binary multi-annular plates: design theory and experiment,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035610 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Luk’yanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Luk’yanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stafeev, S. S.

Tan, J.

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Vectorial design of super-oscillatory lens,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15090–15101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and J. Lin, “Creation of subwavelength light needle, equidistant multi-focus, and uniform light tunnel,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, and J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Modulation of a super-Gaussian optical needle with high-NA Fresnel zone plate,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2742–2745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, J.

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wen, Z.

Xiao, M.

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

T. Liu, T. Shen, S. Yang, and Z. Jiang, “Subwavelength focusing by binary multi-annular plates: design theory and experiment,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035610 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeo, S. P.

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G.

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zheludev, N. I.

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Huang and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-resolution without evanescent waves,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1249–1254 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. T. F. Rogers, S. Savo, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-oscillatory optical needle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and J. Lin, “Creation of subwavelength light needle, equidistant multi-focus, and uniform light tunnel,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

T. Liu, T. Shen, S. Yang, and Z. Jiang, “Subwavelength focusing by binary multi-annular plates: design theory and experiment,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035610 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Ye, C.-W. Qiu, K. Huang, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, and S. P. Yeo, “Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

F. M. Huang and N. I. Zheludev, “Super-resolution without evanescent waves,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1249–1254 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Luk’yanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Liu, J. Tan, and J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Yuan, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, G. Adamo, Z. Shen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6333 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Talflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. ( Artech House, 2005).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the focusing geometry of a SOL.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electromagnetic simulation model of the SOL (a cross section view).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 On-axis intensity distributions (| E |2) for SOL1 and SOL2: (a), (b) for SOL1, (c), (d) for SOL2; (b) and (d) are normalized from (a) and (c), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the electric field intensity distributions for SOL1: (a)-(f) in the x-z plane; (a), (c), (e) by the VAS theory, and (b), (d), (f) by FDTD; (g)-(m) in the x-y plane at z = 2.62 μm; (g), (i), (k) by the VAS theory, and (h), (j), (m) by FDTD; (n) along the x and y directions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of the electric field intensity distributions for SOL5: (a) | E |2 in the x-z plane by the VAS theory, and (b) by FDTD; (c) the on-axis | E |2 distribution; (d) along the x direction in the transverse plane at z = 2.90 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the on-axis electric field intensity distributions for (a) SOL3 and (b) SOL6, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized SOLs a

Equations (4)

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{ E x ( r , z ) = 0 A 0 ( l ) exp [ j 2 π q ( l ) z ] J 0 ( 2 π l r ) 2 π l d l E y ( r , z ) = 0 E z ( r , φ , z ) = j cos φ 0 l q ( l ) A 0 ( l ) exp [ j 2 π q ( l ) z ] J 1 ( 2 π l r ) 2 π l d l ,
[ E x ( r , z ) E y ( r , z ) E z ( r , φ , z ) ] = 1 2 0 [ J 0 ( 2 π l r ) j J 0 ( 2 π l r ) j l q ( l ) J 1 ( 2 π l r ) exp ( j φ ) ] A 0 ( l ) exp [ j 2 π q ( l ) z ] 2 π l d l .
{ E r ( r , z ) = 0 A 1 ( l ) exp [ j 2 π q ( l ) z ] J 1 ( 2 π l r ) 2 π l d l E φ ( r , z ) = 0 E z ( r , z ) = j 0 l q ( l ) A 1 ( l ) exp [ j 2 π q ( l ) z ] J 0 ( 2 π l r ) 2 π l d l ,
U ( r , z ) = 0 A 0 ( l ) exp [ j 2 π q ( l ) z ] J 0 ( 2 π l r ) 2 π l d l .

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