Abstract

We present experiments dealing with a femtosecond laser-driven cluster-based plasma, where by analyzing the nonlinear phenomenon of satellites of spectral lines of Ar XVII, we revealed the nonlinear phenomenon of the generation of the second harmonic of the laser frequency. For performing this analysis we developed new results in the theory of satellites of spectral lines. From such lineshape analysis we found, in particular, that the efficiency of converting the short (40 fs) intense (3x1018 W/cm2) incident laser light into the second harmonic was 2%. This result is in the excellent agreement with the 2-Dimensional Particle-In-Cell (2D PIC) simulation that we also performed. There is also an order of magnitude agreement between the thresholds for the SHG found from the line shape analysis and from the 2D PIC simulations.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

Y. Wang, S. Wang, E. Oliva, L. Li, M. Berrill, L. Yin, J. Nejdl, B. M. Luther, C. Proux, T. T. T. Le, J. Dunn, D. Ros, Ph. Zeitoun, and J. J. Rocca, “Gain dynamics in a soft X-ray laser amplifier perturbed by a strong injected X-ray field,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1912 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Powers, I. Ghebregziabher, G. Golovin, C. Liu, S. Chen, S. Banerjee, J. Zhang, and D. P. Umstadter, “Quasi-monoenergetic and tunable X-rays from a laser-driven Compton light source,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 28–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2 clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 164103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Mie scattering from submicron-sized CO2 clusters formed in a supersonic expansion of a gas mixture,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20656–20674 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Andreev and K. Platonov, “Generation of electron nanobunches and short wavelength radiation upon reflection of a relativistic intensity laser pulse from a finite size target,” Opt. Spectrosc. 114(5), 788–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Braenzel, A. Andreev, M. Schnürer, S. Steinke, K. Platonov, G. Priebe, and W. Sandner, “Sub-structure of laser generated harmonics reveals plasma dynamics of a relativistically oscillating mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 20(8), 083109 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, A. Pirozhkov, K. Kawase, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, Y. Kato, S. V. Bulanov, and M. Kando, “Observation and modeling of high resolution spectral features of the inner-shell X-ray emission produced by 10_10 contrast femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of argon clusters,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 77–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1497–1499 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Thaury and F. Quere, “High-order harmonic and attosecond pulse generation on plasma mirrors: basic mechanisms,” J. Phys. B 43(21), 213001 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Djurović, M. Ćirišan, A. V. Demura, G. V. Demchenko, D. Nikolić, M. A. Gigosos, and M. A. González, “Measurements of Hβ Stark central asymmetry and its analysis through standard theory and computer simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4 Pt 2), 046402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nomura, R. Hörlein, P. Tzallas, B. Dromey, S. Rykovanov, Zs. Major, J. Osterhoff, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Attosecond phase locking of harmonics emitted from laser-produced plasmas,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 124–128 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft X-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121110 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. V. Demura, G. V. Demchenko, and D. Nikolic, “Multiparametric dependence of hydrogen Stark profiles asymmetry,” Eur. Phys. J. D 46(1), 111–127 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Kundu, S. V. Popruzhenko, and D. Bauer, “Harmonic generation from laser-irradiated clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033201 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. d’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: Modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083112 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Rastunkov and V. P. Krainov, “Relativistic dipole and non-relativistic quadrupole generation of the second harmonic at the irradiation of atomic clusters by the femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(8), 392–395 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Rastunkov and V. P. Krainov, “Mechanisms for second harmonic generation in the interaction of a superintense ultrashort laser pulse with cluster plasma,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 3920395 (2006).

M. E. Sherrill, J. Abdallah, G. Csanak, E. S. Dodd, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, K. Yamakawa, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “Spectroscopic characterization of an ultrashort-pulse-laser-driven Ar cluster target incorporating both Boltzmann and particle-in-cell models,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. V. Fomichev, D. F. Zaretsky, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Classical molecular-dynamics simulations of laser-irradiated clusters: Nonlinear electron dynamics and resonance-enhanced low-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013201 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, “Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Plasma in the Radiation-Dominated Regime,” Plasma Phys. Rep. 30(3), 196–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. L. Rolston and W. D. Phillips, “Nonlinear and quantum atom optics,” Nature 416(6877), 219–224 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

F. B. Rosmej, D. H. H. Hoffmann, M. Geißel, M. Roth, P. Pirzadeh, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, and A. I. Magunov, “Advanced X-ray diagnostics based on an observation of high-energy Rydberg transitions from autoionizing levels in dense laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 063409 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Blasco, C. Stenz, F. Salin, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “Portable, tunable, high-luminosity spherical crystal spectrometer with X- Ray charge couple device, for high-resolution X-Ray spectromicroscopy of clusters, heated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1956 (2001).

2000 (1)

F. B. Rosmej, U. N. Funk, M. Geissel, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Tauschwitz, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, F. Flora, S. Bollanti, P. Di. Lazzaro, T. Letardi, A. Grilli, L. Palladino, A. Reale, G. Tomassetti, A. Scafati, L. Reale, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, A. Maksimchuk, S. A. Pikuz, D. Umstadter, M. Nantel, R. Bock, M. Dornik, M. Stetter, S. Stowe, V. Yakushev, M. Kulisch, and N. Shilkin, “X-Ray radiation from ions with K-shell vacancies,” J. Quant. Spestrosc. Rad. Transfer 65(4–6), 477–499 (2000).

1998 (2)

F. B. Rosmej, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, T. Letardi, A. Grilli, A. Reale, L. Palladino, G. Tomassetti, A. Scafati, and L. Reale, “Line formation of high intensity Heb Rydberg dielectronic satellites 1s3lnl’ in dense laser-produced plasmas,” J. Phys. B. Letters 31(21), L921–L931 (1998).

A. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, “Experimental observation of relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering,” Nature 396(6712), 653–659 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

V. Malka, A. Modena, Z. Najmudin, A. E. Dangor, C. E. Clayton, K. A. Marsh, C. Joshi, C. Danson, D. Neely, and F. N. Walsh, “Second harmonic generation and its interaction with relativistic plasma waves driven by forward Raman instability in underdense plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4(4), 1127–1131 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. B. Rosmej and A. Ya. Faenov, “New innershell phenomena from Rydberg series of highly charged ions,” Phys. Scr. T 173, 106–107 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

C. Bula, K. T. McDonald, E. J. Prebys, C. Bamber, S. Boege, T. Kotseroglou, A. C. Melissinos, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Ragg, D. L. Burke, R. C. Field, G. Horton-Smith, A. C. Odian, J. E. Spencer, D. Walz, S. C. Berridge, W. M. Bugg, K. Shmakov, and A. W. Weidemann, “Observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(17), 3116–3119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, and R. W. Falcone, “High-order harmonic generation in atom clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2472–2475 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. Esarey, A. Tung, P. Sprangle, D. Umstadter, and X. Liu, “Nonlinear analysis of relativistic harmonic generation by intense lasers in plasmas,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21(1), 95–104 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

V. P. Gavrilenko, E. Oks, and V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov, “Observation and analysis of oscillatory electric fields in the peripheral plasma in a tokamak on the basis of a new spectroscopic effect,” JETP Lett. 44, 404–408 (1986).

1985 (1)

V. E. Zakharov, S. L. Musher, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Hamiltonian approach to the description of non-linear plasma phenomena,” Phys. Rep. 129(5), 285–366 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

E. Oks, “Spectroscopy of plasmas containing quasimonochromatic electric fields,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 29, 224–226 (1984).

1968 (1)

W. Lünow, “On the relativistic non-linear interaction of cold plasma with electro-magnetic waves,” Plasma Phys. 10(9), 879–897 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (2)

Ya. B. Zel’dovich, “The quasienergy of a quantum-mechanical system subjected to a periodic action,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 1006–1008 (1967).

I. Ritus, “Shift and splitting of atomic energy levels by the field of an electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 1041–1044 (1967).

1956 (1)

A. I. Akhiezer and R. V. Polovin, “Theory of Wave Motion of an Electron. Plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 696–705 (1956).

1933 (1)

D. I. Blochinzew, “Zur Theorie des Starkeffektes im Zeitveränderlichen Feld,” Phys. Z. Sow. Union 4, 501–515 (1933).

Abdallah, J.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, A. Pirozhkov, K. Kawase, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, Y. Kato, S. V. Bulanov, and M. Kando, “Observation and modeling of high resolution spectral features of the inner-shell X-ray emission produced by 10_10 contrast femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of argon clusters,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 77–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. E. Sherrill, J. Abdallah, G. Csanak, E. S. Dodd, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, K. Yamakawa, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “Spectroscopic characterization of an ultrashort-pulse-laser-driven Ar cluster target incorporating both Boltzmann and particle-in-cell models,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, J. C.

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Akahane, Y.

M. E. Sherrill, J. Abdallah, G. Csanak, E. S. Dodd, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, K. Yamakawa, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “Spectroscopic characterization of an ultrashort-pulse-laser-driven Ar cluster target incorporating both Boltzmann and particle-in-cell models,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akhiezer, A. I.

A. I. Akhiezer and R. V. Polovin, “Theory of Wave Motion of an Electron. Plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 696–705 (1956).

Andreev, A.

A. Andreev and K. Platonov, “Generation of electron nanobunches and short wavelength radiation upon reflection of a relativistic intensity laser pulse from a finite size target,” Opt. Spectrosc. 114(5), 788–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Braenzel, A. Andreev, M. Schnürer, S. Steinke, K. Platonov, G. Priebe, and W. Sandner, “Sub-structure of laser generated harmonics reveals plasma dynamics of a relativistically oscillating mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 20(8), 083109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aoyama, M.

M. E. Sherrill, J. Abdallah, G. Csanak, E. S. Dodd, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, K. Yamakawa, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “Spectroscopic characterization of an ultrashort-pulse-laser-driven Ar cluster target incorporating both Boltzmann and particle-in-cell models,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

Audebert, P.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. d’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

F. B. Rosmej, U. N. Funk, M. Geissel, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Tauschwitz, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, F. Flora, S. Bollanti, P. Di. Lazzaro, T. Letardi, A. Grilli, L. Palladino, A. Reale, G. Tomassetti, A. Scafati, L. Reale, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, A. Maksimchuk, S. A. Pikuz, D. Umstadter, M. Nantel, R. Bock, M. Dornik, M. Stetter, S. Stowe, V. Yakushev, M. Kulisch, and N. Shilkin, “X-Ray radiation from ions with K-shell vacancies,” J. Quant. Spestrosc. Rad. Transfer 65(4–6), 477–499 (2000).

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bamber, C.

C. Bula, K. T. McDonald, E. J. Prebys, C. Bamber, S. Boege, T. Kotseroglou, A. C. Melissinos, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Ragg, D. L. Burke, R. C. Field, G. Horton-Smith, A. C. Odian, J. E. Spencer, D. Walz, S. C. Berridge, W. M. Bugg, K. Shmakov, and A. W. Weidemann, “Observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(17), 3116–3119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S.

N. D. Powers, I. Ghebregziabher, G. Golovin, C. Liu, S. Chen, S. Banerjee, J. Zhang, and D. P. Umstadter, “Quasi-monoenergetic and tunable X-rays from a laser-driven Compton light source,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 28–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauer, D.

M. Kundu, S. V. Popruzhenko, and D. Bauer, “Harmonic generation from laser-irradiated clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033201 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. V. Fomichev, D. F. Zaretsky, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Classical molecular-dynamics simulations of laser-irradiated clusters: Nonlinear electron dynamics and resonance-enhanced low-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Becker, W.

S. V. Fomichev, D. F. Zaretsky, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Classical molecular-dynamics simulations of laser-irradiated clusters: Nonlinear electron dynamics and resonance-enhanced low-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berridge, S. C.

C. Bula, K. T. McDonald, E. J. Prebys, C. Bamber, S. Boege, T. Kotseroglou, A. C. Melissinos, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Ragg, D. L. Burke, R. C. Field, G. Horton-Smith, A. C. Odian, J. E. Spencer, D. Walz, S. C. Berridge, W. M. Bugg, K. Shmakov, and A. W. Weidemann, “Observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(17), 3116–3119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berrill, M.

Y. Wang, S. Wang, E. Oliva, L. Li, M. Berrill, L. Yin, J. Nejdl, B. M. Luther, C. Proux, T. T. T. Le, J. Dunn, D. Ros, Ph. Zeitoun, and J. J. Rocca, “Gain dynamics in a soft X-ray laser amplifier perturbed by a strong injected X-ray field,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blasco, F.

F. Blasco, C. Stenz, F. Salin, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “Portable, tunable, high-luminosity spherical crystal spectrometer with X- Ray charge couple device, for high-resolution X-Ray spectromicroscopy of clusters, heated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(4), 1956 (2001).

Blochinzew, D. I.

D. I. Blochinzew, “Zur Theorie des Starkeffektes im Zeitveränderlichen Feld,” Phys. Z. Sow. Union 4, 501–515 (1933).

Bock, R.

F. B. Rosmej, U. N. Funk, M. Geissel, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Tauschwitz, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, F. Flora, S. Bollanti, P. Di. Lazzaro, T. Letardi, A. Grilli, L. Palladino, A. Reale, G. Tomassetti, A. Scafati, L. Reale, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, A. Maksimchuk, S. A. Pikuz, D. Umstadter, M. Nantel, R. Bock, M. Dornik, M. Stetter, S. Stowe, V. Yakushev, M. Kulisch, and N. Shilkin, “X-Ray radiation from ions with K-shell vacancies,” J. Quant. Spestrosc. Rad. Transfer 65(4–6), 477–499 (2000).

Boege, S.

C. Bula, K. T. McDonald, E. J. Prebys, C. Bamber, S. Boege, T. Kotseroglou, A. C. Melissinos, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Ragg, D. L. Burke, R. C. Field, G. Horton-Smith, A. C. Odian, J. E. Spencer, D. Walz, S. C. Berridge, W. M. Bugg, K. Shmakov, and A. W. Weidemann, “Observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(17), 3116–3119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boldarev, A. S.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2 clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 164103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Mie scattering from submicron-sized CO2 clusters formed in a supersonic expansion of a gas mixture,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20656–20674 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: Modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bollanti, S.

F. B. Rosmej, U. N. Funk, M. Geissel, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Tauschwitz, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, F. Flora, S. Bollanti, P. Di. Lazzaro, T. Letardi, A. Grilli, L. Palladino, A. Reale, G. Tomassetti, A. Scafati, L. Reale, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, A. Maksimchuk, S. A. Pikuz, D. Umstadter, M. Nantel, R. Bock, M. Dornik, M. Stetter, S. Stowe, V. Yakushev, M. Kulisch, and N. Shilkin, “X-Ray radiation from ions with K-shell vacancies,” J. Quant. Spestrosc. Rad. Transfer 65(4–6), 477–499 (2000).

Bolton, P. R.

Bougeard, M.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. d’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Braenzel, J.

J. Braenzel, A. Andreev, M. Schnürer, S. Steinke, K. Platonov, G. Priebe, and W. Sandner, “Sub-structure of laser generated harmonics reveals plasma dynamics of a relativistically oscillating mirror,” Phys. Plasmas 20(8), 083109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bryunetkin, B. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bugg, W. M.

C. Bula, K. T. McDonald, E. J. Prebys, C. Bamber, S. Boege, T. Kotseroglou, A. C. Melissinos, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Ragg, D. L. Burke, R. C. Field, G. Horton-Smith, A. C. Odian, J. E. Spencer, D. Walz, S. C. Berridge, W. M. Bugg, K. Shmakov, and A. W. Weidemann, “Observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(17), 3116–3119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bula, C.

C. Bula, K. T. McDonald, E. J. Prebys, C. Bamber, S. Boege, T. Kotseroglou, A. C. Melissinos, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Ragg, D. L. Burke, R. C. Field, G. Horton-Smith, A. C. Odian, J. E. Spencer, D. Walz, S. C. Berridge, W. M. Bugg, K. Shmakov, and A. W. Weidemann, “Observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(17), 3116–3119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulanov, S. V.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, A. Pirozhkov, K. Kawase, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, Y. Kato, S. V. Bulanov, and M. Kando, “Observation and modeling of high resolution spectral features of the inner-shell X-ray emission produced by 10_10 contrast femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of argon clusters,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 77–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft X-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121110 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, “Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Plasma in the Radiation-Dominated Regime,” Plasma Phys. Rep. 30(3), 196–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burke, D. L.

C. Bula, K. T. McDonald, E. J. Prebys, C. Bamber, S. Boege, T. Kotseroglou, A. C. Melissinos, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Ragg, D. L. Burke, R. C. Field, G. Horton-Smith, A. C. Odian, J. E. Spencer, D. Walz, S. C. Berridge, W. M. Bugg, K. Shmakov, and A. W. Weidemann, “Observation of nonlinear effects in Compton scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(17), 3116–3119 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceccotti, T.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. d’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Charalambidis, D.

Y. Nomura, R. Hörlein, P. Tzallas, B. Dromey, S. Rykovanov, Zs. Major, J. Osterhoff, S. Karsch, L. Veisz, M. Zepf, D. Charalambidis, F. Krausz, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Attosecond phase locking of harmonics emitted from laser-produced plasmas,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 124–128 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

A. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadter, “Experimental observation of relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering,” Nature 396(6712), 653–659 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. M.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1912 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft X-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

N. D. Powers, I. Ghebregziabher, G. Golovin, C. Liu, S. Chen, S. Banerjee, J. Zhang, and D. P. Umstadter, “Quasi-monoenergetic and tunable X-rays from a laser-driven Compton light source,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 28–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cirišan, M.

S. Djurović, M. Ćirišan, A. V. Demura, G. V. Demchenko, D. Nikolić, M. A. Gigosos, and M. A. González, “Measurements of Hβ Stark central asymmetry and its analysis through standard theory and computer simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4 Pt 2), 046402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clayton, C. E.

V. Malka, A. Modena, Z. Najmudin, A. E. Dangor, C. E. Clayton, K. A. Marsh, C. Joshi, C. Danson, D. Neely, and F. N. Walsh, “Second harmonic generation and its interaction with relativistic plasma waves driven by forward Raman instability in underdense plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 4(4), 1127–1131 (1997).
[Crossref]

Colgan, J.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, A. Pirozhkov, K. Kawase, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, Y. Kato, S. V. Bulanov, and M. Kando, “Observation and modeling of high resolution spectral features of the inner-shell X-ray emission produced by 10_10 contrast femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of argon clusters,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 77–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Csanak, G.

M. E. Sherrill, J. Abdallah, G. Csanak, E. S. Dodd, Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, K. Yamakawa, A. Ya. Faenov, A. I. Magunov, T. A. Pikuz, and I. Yu. Skobelev, “Spectroscopic characterization of an ultrashort-pulse-laser-driven Ar cluster target incorporating both Boltzmann and particle-in-cell models,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

d’Oliveira, P.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. d’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. B. Rosmej, U. N. Funk, M. Geissel, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Tauschwitz, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, F. Flora, S. Bollanti, P. Di. Lazzaro, T. Letardi, A. Grilli, L. Palladino, A. Reale, G. Tomassetti, A. Scafati, L. Reale, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, A. Maksimchuk, S. A. Pikuz, D. Umstadter, M. Nantel, R. Bock, M. Dornik, M. Stetter, S. Stowe, V. Yakushev, M. Kulisch, and N. Shilkin, “X-Ray radiation from ions with K-shell vacancies,” J. Quant. Spestrosc. Rad. Transfer 65(4–6), 477–499 (2000).

Daido, H.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of interlinked nonlinear processes. (a) Quasienergy States (QS) of the combined system “atom + electric field E(t) = E0 cosωt”. Each atomic/ionic energy level “splits up” into generally infinite number of QS, separated from each other by ħω. Only few QS are shown (by red lines). The presence of many other QS (of generally infinite amount) is symbolically indicated by dots, like in the sequence ± ħω, ± 2ħω, ± 3ħω, ….(b) The spectrum of radiative transitions between QS shows satellites at ± ω, ± 2ω, … (in the frequency scale) in addition to the main spectral line. While there is generally an infinite number of QS, practically only a finite number of satellites is observed. (c) Schematic representation of one of the mechanisms of the second harmonic generation – just as an illustrative example. The pump wave (t1) excites both the Langmuir wave (l) and the ion-acoustic wave (s): t1 → l + s. Then the predominant process is l + l → t2, where two Langmuir waves combine to produce a transverse electromagnetic wave (t2) at twice the laser frequency.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic experimental setup (a) and a typical X-ray spectrum of Ar cluster plasma in the spectral range 0.305 –0. 35 nm (b), as well as a typical spectrum of the laser beam in the 200 – 500 nm spectral range (c). The laser beam with the contrast shown in (d), ionized Ar clusters and caused nonlinear processes in the cluster plasma. Spectra of Ar XVII were measured by the X-ray spectrometer FSSR. The laser radiation that passed through the cluster plasma was scattered off the screen and spectra of the scattered light in the visible range were measured by the Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrometer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparion of experimental and theoretical spectra of the lines Ar XVII Ly-delta (Ly-5), Ly-epsilon (Ly-6), and Ly-zeta (Ly-7), obtained at laser intensity ~3x1018 W/cm2 (J-KAREN laser facility). Dashed blue – experimental spectra, solid red at the bottom – theoretical spectra from the bi-chromatic field region (the field is E1cos(ωt) + E2cos(2ωt), E1 = 14 GV/cm, E2 = 7 GV/cm), solid black – total theoretical spectra, including the region of no bi-chromatic field.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental and theoretical spectra of the lines Ar XVII Ly-delta (Ly-5) and Ly-epsilon (Ly-6), obtained at laser intensity ~3x1018 W/cm2. (a) Spatially (~280 μm)-resolved experimenttal spectra along the laser beam propagation. The most pronounced 2ω satellites are observed close to the center of plasma channel; (b) Spatially-integrated experimental spectra (solid red), for which the modeling (dashed black) was provided. There is a good agreement of the experimental and modeled results.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of experimental and theoretical spectra of the lines Ar XVII Ly-5 and Ly-6, obtained under laser intensity 4x1017 W/cm2 and laser pulse duration 500 fs (JLITE-X laser facility), with modeled ones. Dashed blue – experimental spectra, solid red at the bottom – theoretical spectra from the monochromatic field region (the field is E1cos(ωt), E1 = 10.6 GV/cm), solid black – total theoretical spectra, including the region of no monochromatic field.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation of the interaction of a 40 fs pulse of intense (3x1018 W/cm2) linearly-polarized laser radiation with the Ar+16 cluster of the diameter 500 nm using a 2D PIC code. (a) The 2D spatial distribution of electric field Ey(y,z) at t = 42 fs. The laser pulse propagated from bottom to the top of the figure along the z-axis. The cluster center is located at the point z = y = 10 µm. (b) The distribution of electric field Ey(y, z) for y = 10 µm at t = 64 fs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental spectra of the lines Ar XVII Ly-delta (Ly-5), Ly-epsilon (Ly-6), and Ly-zeta (Ly-7), obtained while decreasing either the laser intensity, or the laser contrast, or the cluster sizes. (a) Laser intensity = 1.8⋅ 1018 W/cm2, pulse duration = 30 fs, contrast = 105, cluster size > 1 μm26; (b) Laser intensity = 1⋅ 1017 W/cm2, pulse duration = 45 fs, contrast = 105, cluster size ~70 nm. It is seen that no 2ω laser satellites were observed, which is in a good agreement with the PIC simulation results for lower laser intensities, or lower contrasts, or smaller sizes of the clusters.

Equations (15)

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t 1 l+s.
N ec = m e ω 4π e 2 ,
l+l t 2 ,
l+ t 1 t 2 ,
N ec < N e <4 N ec ,
Φ n α α Φ n β β =exp(ix ε 1 sinωt)= p= J p (x ε 1 )exp(ipωt) ,
x= n α ( n 1 n 2 ) α n β ( n 1 n 2 ) β ,
ε 1 =3 E 1 /(2 Z eff m e eω),
I p = x j x [ J p2s ( x ε 1 ) ] 2 ,
Φ n α α Φ n β β =exp[ ix( ε 1 sinωt+ ε 2 sin2ωt) ],
ε 2 = 3 E 2 2 Z eff m e e(2ω) ,
I p = x j x [ s= J s (x ε 2 ) J p2s (x ε 1 ) ] 2 ,
Φ n α α Φ n β β =exp[ i ε quadr sin2ωt) ],
ε quadr = n 4 (17 n 2 9 m 2 +19) a 0 3 E 1 2 64 Z eff 4 ω .
I c,2p = j c [ J p ( ε quadr ) ] 2 ,

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