Abstract

We demonstrate high-speed and low-noise near-infrared single-photon detection by using a capacitance balancing circuit to achieve a high spike noise suppression for an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The single-photon detector could operate at a tunable gate repetition rate from 10 to 60 MHz. A peak detection efficiency of 34% has been achieved with a dark count rate of 9 × 10−3 per gate when the detection window was set to 1 ns. Additionally, quantum detector tomography has also been performed at 60 MHz of repetition rate and for the detection window of 1 ns, enabling to witness the quantum features of the detector with the help of a negative Wigner function. By varying the bias voltage of the detector, we further demonstrated a transition from the full-quantum to semi-classical regime.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10632–10639 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  3. H. Shibata, T. Honjo, and K. Shimizu, “Quantum key distribution over a 72 dB channel loss using ultralow dark count superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5078–5081 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Ren, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum key distribution,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 755–760 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. R. Reilly and G. S. Kanter, “High speed lidar via GHz gated photon detector and locked but unequal optical pulse rates,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15718–15723 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 227–230 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Zhang, T. Rob, B. Claudio, and Z. Hugo, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. Q. Wu, N. Namekata, and S. Inoue, “Sinusoidally gated InGaAs avalanche photodiode with direct hold-off function for efficient and low-noise single-photon detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062202 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Bimbard, N. Jain, A. MacRae, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum-optical state engineering up to the two-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 243–247 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. M. Natarajan, L. Zhang, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, G. Donati, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, I. A. Walmsley, and R. H. Hadfield, “Quantum detector tomography of a time-multiplexed superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(1), 893–902 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. X. Zhou, H. Cable, R. Whittaker, P. Shadbolt, J. O’Brien, and J. Matthews, “Quantum-enhanced tomography of unitary processes,” Optica 2(6), 510–516 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in single photon detection: modeling and quantum tomography,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21305–21312 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Piacentini, M. P. Levi, A. Avella, M. López, S. Kück, S. V. Polyakov, I. P. Degiovanni, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Positive operator-valued measure reconstruction of a beam-splitter tree-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1548–1551 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Scarcella, G. Boso, A. Ruggeri, and A. Tosi, “InGaAs/InP single-photon detector gated at 1.3 GHz with 1.5% afterpulsing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 17 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. V. D’Auria, O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Effect of the heralding detector properties on the conditional generation of single-photon states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(10), 249 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Amri, J. Laurat, and C. Fabre, “Characterizing quantum properties of a measurement apparatus: insights from the retrodictive approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(2), 020502 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, H. Cable, R. Whittaker, P. Shadbolt, J. O’Brien, and J. Matthews, “Quantum-enhanced tomography of unitary processes,” Optica 2(6), 510–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Scarcella, G. Boso, A. Ruggeri, and A. Tosi, “InGaAs/InP single-photon detector gated at 1.3 GHz with 1.5% afterpulsing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 17 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Piacentini, M. P. Levi, A. Avella, M. López, S. Kück, S. V. Polyakov, I. P. Degiovanni, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Positive operator-valued measure reconstruction of a beam-splitter tree-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1548–1551 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shibata, T. Honjo, and K. Shimizu, “Quantum key distribution over a 72 dB channel loss using ultralow dark count superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5078–5081 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Reilly and G. S. Kanter, “High speed lidar via GHz gated photon detector and locked but unequal optical pulse rates,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15718–15723 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

Q. Wu, N. Namekata, and S. Inoue, “Sinusoidally gated InGaAs avalanche photodiode with direct hold-off function for efficient and low-noise single-photon detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062202 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Natarajan, L. Zhang, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, G. Donati, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, I. A. Walmsley, and R. H. Hadfield, “Quantum detector tomography of a time-multiplexed superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(1), 893–902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

V. D’Auria, O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Effect of the heralding detector properties on the conditional generation of single-photon states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(10), 249 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in single photon detection: modeling and quantum tomography,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21305–21312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Amri, J. Laurat, and C. Fabre, “Characterizing quantum properties of a measurement apparatus: insights from the retrodictive approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(2), 020502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ren, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum key distribution,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 755–760 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10632–10639 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

E. Bimbard, N. Jain, A. MacRae, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum-optical state engineering up to the two-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 243–247 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 227–230 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, T. Rob, B. Claudio, and Z. Hugo, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Acebi, F.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

Amri, T.

T. Amri, J. Laurat, and C. Fabre, “Characterizing quantum properties of a measurement apparatus: insights from the retrodictive approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(2), 020502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avella, A.

Berchera, I.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 227–230 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bimbard, E.

E. Bimbard, N. Jain, A. MacRae, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum-optical state engineering up to the two-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 243–247 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blatt, R.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boso, G.

C. Scarcella, G. Boso, A. Ruggeri, and A. Tosi, “InGaAs/InP single-photon detector gated at 1.3 GHz with 1.5% afterpulsing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 17 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brida, G.

Briegel, H. J.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, H.

Chen, S.

Chen, T. Y.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Claudio, B.

J. Zhang, T. Rob, B. Claudio, and Z. Hugo, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coldenstrodt-Ronge, H.

Comandar, L.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cui, K.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Auria, V.

V. D’Auria, O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Effect of the heralding detector properties on the conditional generation of single-photon states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(10), 249 (2012).
[Crossref]

Degiovanni, I. P.

Donati, G.

Dorenbos, S. N.

Dür, W.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dynes, J.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eisert, J.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Entwistle, M.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

V. D’Auria, O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Effect of the heralding detector properties on the conditional generation of single-photon states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(10), 249 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Amri, J. Laurat, and C. Fabre, “Characterizing quantum properties of a measurement apparatus: insights from the retrodictive approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(2), 020502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feito, A.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, B.

Fröhlich, B.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geltenbort, P.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genoni, M.

C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
[Crossref]

Genovese, M.

Gisin, N.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

He, Y.

Hempel, C.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hino, M.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

Houlmann, R.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Hughes, C.

C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hugo, Z.

J. Zhang, T. Rob, B. Claudio, and Z. Hugo, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, G.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, S.

Q. Wu, N. Namekata, and S. Inoue, “Sinusoidally gated InGaAs avalanche photodiode with direct hold-off function for efficient and low-noise single-photon detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062202 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10632–10639 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzler, M.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jain, N.

E. Bimbard, N. Jain, A. MacRae, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum-optical state engineering up to the two-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 243–247 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jian, Y.

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.

Jiang, X.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jurcevic, P.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamiya, Y.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanter, G. S.

Kawasaki, S.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kitaguchi, M.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komamiya, S.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, W.

Korzh, B.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kück, S.

Lanyon, B. P.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laurat, J.

V. D’Auria, O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Effect of the heralding detector properties on the conditional generation of single-photon states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(10), 249 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Amri, J. Laurat, and C. Fabre, “Characterizing quantum properties of a measurement apparatus: insights from the retrodictive approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(2), 020502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levi, M. P.

Li, L.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

Lim, W.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

Liu, N. L.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López, M.

Lucamarini, M.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lundeen, J.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lundeen, J. S.

Lvovsky, A.

E. Bimbard, N. Jain, A. MacRae, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum-optical state engineering up to the two-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 243–247 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacRae, A.

E. Bimbard, N. Jain, A. MacRae, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum-optical state engineering up to the two-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 243–247 (2010).
[Crossref]

Majedi, A. H.

Martinez, E. A.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matteo, G.

C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matthews, J.

Minami, Y.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morin, O.

V. D’Auria, O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Effect of the heralding detector properties on the conditional generation of single-photon states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(10), 249 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagano, M.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Namekata, N.

Q. Wu, N. Namekata, and S. Inoue, “Sinusoidally gated InGaAs avalanche photodiode with direct hold-off function for efficient and low-noise single-photon detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062202 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10632–10639 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natarajan, C. M.

Nolan, D.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J.

Pan, J. W.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, K.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pelc, J. S.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, C. Z.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penty, R.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Piacentini, F.

Plenio, M.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polyakov, S. V.

Pregnell, K.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ralph, T.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reilly, D. R.

Ren, M.

Rob, T.

J. Zhang, T. Rob, B. Claudio, and Z. Hugo, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roos, C. F.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruggeri, A.

C. Scarcella, G. Boso, A. Ruggeri, and A. Tosi, “InGaAs/InP single-photon detector gated at 1.3 GHz with 1.5% afterpulsing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 17 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanguinetti, B.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanuki, T.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scarcella, C.

C. Scarcella, G. Boso, A. Ruggeri, and A. Tosi, “InGaAs/InP single-photon detector gated at 1.3 GHz with 1.5% afterpulsing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 17 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shadbolt, P.

Sharpe, A.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shentu, G. L.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibata, H.

Shields, A.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, K.

Silberhorn, C.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Slomkowski, K.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takesue, H.

Tani, M.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thew, R.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tokura, Y.

Tosi, A.

C. Scarcella, G. Boso, A. Ruggeri, and A. Tosi, “InGaAs/InP single-photon detector gated at 1.3 GHz with 1.5% afterpulsing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 17 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tufarelli, T.

C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I.

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, J.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. J.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Whittaker, R.

Wu, E.

Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ren, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum key distribution,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 755–760 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, G.

Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ren, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum key distribution,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 755–760 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, N. Namekata, and S. Inoue, “Sinusoidally gated InGaAs avalanche photodiode with direct hold-off function for efficient and low-noise single-photon detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamamura, K.

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yin, H. L.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, L.

Yuan, Z.

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
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S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ren, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum key distribution,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 755–760 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, T. Rob, B. Claudio, and Z. Hugo, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhou, X.

Zwerger, M.

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zwiller, V.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Q. Wu, N. Namekata, and S. Inoue, “Sinusoidally gated InGaAs avalanche photodiode with direct hold-off function for efficient and low-noise single-photon detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, K. Patel, A. Sharpe, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 021101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, T. Rob, B. Claudio, and Z. Hugo, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

V. D’Auria, O. Morin, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Effect of the heralding detector properties on the conditional generation of single-photon states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(10), 249 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Scarcella, G. Boso, A. Ruggeri, and A. Tosi, “InGaAs/InP single-photon detector gated at 1.3 GHz with 1.5% afterpulsing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 17 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Low-timing-jitter single-photon detection using 1-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 887–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acebi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

M. Ren, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum key distribution,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 755–760 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 227–230 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Korzh, W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Bimbard, N. Jain, A. MacRae, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum-optical state engineering up to the two-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 243–247 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. Plenio, and I. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Hughes, M. Genoni, T. Tufarelli, G. Matteo, and M. Kim, “Quantum non-Gaussianity witnesses in phase space,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013810 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

T. Amri, J. Laurat, and C. Fabre, “Characterizing quantum properties of a measurement apparatus: insights from the retrodictive approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(2), 020502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ichikawa, S. Komamiya, Y. Kamiya, Y. Minami, M. Tani, P. Geltenbort, K. Yamamura, M. Nagano, T. Sanuki, S. Kawasaki, M. Hino, and M. Kitaguchi, “Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 071101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, M. Zwerger, C. Hempel, E. A. Martinez, W. Dür, H. J. Briegel, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Measurement-based quantum computation with trapped ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 210501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, L. J. Wang, H. Liang, G. L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H. L. Yin, N. L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C. Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the detector tomography. Atten1,2: attenuators; BP: beam splitter; Laser source: a continuous-wave laser or a pulsed laser at 1550 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Saturated counting rate as a function of the gate repetition rate. We illuminated the APD by an attenuated continuous-wave laser to ensure that more than 103 photons were contained in each detection window which duration was set to be 1 ns.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured probability distributions for different outcomes as a function of average photon per pulse. (b) Comparison of the POVM based on experimental measured η and ν with the reconstructed POVM based on QDT. (c) Corresponding Wigner function for the representation of the POVM element Πon.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Single-photon detection efficiency and dark counts as a function of bias voltage applied on the APD. (b) Cross sections of the Wigner function of the detector under different bias voltages.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Values of Wigner function at the origin of coordinate with different bias voltages.

Equations (2)

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Π ^ off = e v k=0 (1η) k |kk| , Π ^ on = 1 ^ Π ^ off ,
W on = 1 2π σ 0 2 ( 1 2 e ν 2η e ( x 2 + y 2 )/2 σ η 2 ) ,

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