Abstract

Finite element method is coupled with Huygens’ expansion to determine light intensity distribution of scattered light in solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. The rigorous foundation of the modelling enables calculation of the light intensity distribution at a chosen distance and surface of observation in chosen material in reflection or in transmission for given wavelength of the incident light. The calculation of scattering or anti-reflection properties is not limited to a single textured interface, but can be done above more complex structures with several scattering interfaces or even with particles involved. Both scattering at periodic and at random textures can be efficiently handled with the modelling approach. A procedure for minimisation of the effect of small-area sample, which is considered in the finite element method calculation, is proposed and implemented into the modelling. Angular distribution function, total transmission and total reflection of the scattering interface or structure can be determined using the model. Furthermore, a method for calculation of the haze parameter of reflected or transmitted light is proposed. The modelling approach is applied to periodic and random nano-textured samples for photovoltaic applications, showing good agreement with measured data.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

K. Jäger, D. N. P. Linssen, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Ambiguities in optical simulations of nanotextured thin-film solar cells using the finite-element method,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1060–A1071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jošt, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Camera-based angular resolved spectroscopy system for spatial measurements of scattered light,” Appl. Opt. 53(21), 4795–4803 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Abass, C. Trompoukis, S. Leyre, M. Burgelman, and B. Maes, “Modeling combined coherent and incoherent scattering structures for light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033101 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Čampa, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Two approaches for incoherent propagation of light in rigorous numerical simulations,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 137, 187–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jäger, M. Fischer, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for nano-textured interfaces and its application in opto-electrical simulations of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films 519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, L. Zhao, and M. Zeman, “Light scattering properties of surface-textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 7, 945–948 (2010).

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044504 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Jäger and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171108 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8558–8561 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Krč, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Analysis of light scattering in amorphous Si:H solar cells by a one‐dimensional semi‐coherent optical model,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 15–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1974 (1)

L. B. Lucy, “An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions,” Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. C. Johnson, H. A. Ecker, and J. S. Hollis, “Determination of Far-Field Antenna Patterns from Near-Field Measurements,” Proc. IEEE 61(12), 1668–1694 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

Abass, A.

A. Abass, C. Trompoukis, S. Leyre, M. Burgelman, and B. Maes, “Modeling combined coherent and incoherent scattering structures for light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alexander, D. T. L.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044504 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8558–8561 (2007).
[Crossref]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beckers, T.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films 519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beneking, C.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bittkau, K.

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films 519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blaschke, H.

Boccard, M.

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgelman, M.

A. Abass, C. Trompoukis, S. Leyre, M. Burgelman, and B. Maes, “Modeling combined coherent and incoherent scattering structures for light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campa, A.

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Čampa, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Two approaches for incoherent propagation of light in rigorous numerical simulations,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 137, 187–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cantoni, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carius, R.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films 519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[Crossref]

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christoforo, M. G.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominé, D.

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duchamp, M.

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duparré, A.

Eckardt, S.

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ecker, H. A.

R. C. Johnson, H. A. Ecker, and J. S. Hollis, “Determination of Far-Field Antenna Patterns from Near-Field Measurements,” Proc. IEEE 61(12), 1668–1694 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ermes, M.

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Escarré, J.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faÿ, S.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8558–8561 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

K. Jäger, M. Fischer, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for nano-textured interfaces and its application in opto-electrical simulations of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
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W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
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A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
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Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
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A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
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M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
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C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
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Herffurth, T.

Hofmann, S.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
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R. C. Johnson, H. A. Ecker, and J. S. Hollis, “Determination of Far-Field Antenna Patterns from Near-Field Measurements,” Proc. IEEE 61(12), 1668–1694 (1973).
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O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
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Hsu, C.-M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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Isabella, O.

K. Jäger, D. N. P. Linssen, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Ambiguities in optical simulations of nanotextured thin-film solar cells using the finite-element method,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1060–A1071 (2015).
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K. Jäger, O. Isabella, L. Zhao, and M. Zeman, “Light scattering properties of surface-textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 7, 945–948 (2010).

Jäger, K.

K. Jäger, D. N. P. Linssen, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Ambiguities in optical simulations of nanotextured thin-film solar cells using the finite-element method,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1060–A1071 (2015).
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Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
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K. Jäger, M. Fischer, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for nano-textured interfaces and its application in opto-electrical simulations of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083108 (2012).
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M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
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K. Jäger, O. Isabella, L. Zhao, and M. Zeman, “Light scattering properties of surface-textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 7, 945–948 (2010).

K. Jäger and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171108 (2009).
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Johnson, R. C.

R. C. Johnson, H. A. Ecker, and J. S. Hollis, “Determination of Far-Field Antenna Patterns from Near-Field Measurements,” Proc. IEEE 61(12), 1668–1694 (1973).
[Crossref]

Jošt, M.

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
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Klein, M.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films 519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kluth, O.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
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Krc, J.

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jošt, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Camera-based angular resolved spectroscopy system for spatial measurements of scattered light,” Appl. Opt. 53(21), 4795–4803 (2014).
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A. Čampa, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Two approaches for incoherent propagation of light in rigorous numerical simulations,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 137, 187–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Krč, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Analysis of light scattering in amorphous Si:H solar cells by a one‐dimensional semi‐coherent optical model,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 15–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lasagni, A. F.

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
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Leyre, S.

A. Abass, C. Trompoukis, S. Leyre, M. Burgelman, and B. Maes, “Modeling combined coherent and incoherent scattering structures for light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033101 (2013).
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Linssen, D. N. P.

Lipovšek, B.

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loffl, A.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
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L. B. Lucy, “An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions,” Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974).
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Lüssem, B.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maes, B.

A. Abass, C. Trompoukis, S. Leyre, M. Burgelman, and B. Maes, “Modeling combined coherent and incoherent scattering structures for light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033101 (2013).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehra, S.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, M.

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mercaldo, L. V.

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Merdzhanova, T.

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[Crossref]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliveira, N.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8558–8561 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peumans, P.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pieters, B. E.

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rech, B.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Richardson, W. H.

Roch, T.

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rusch, J. J.

Sachse, C.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salleo, A.

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez Plaza, G.

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Santbergen, R.

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schock, H. W.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scholz, R.

L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schope, G.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schröder, S.

Schulte, M.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films 519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sever, M.

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smole, F.

J. Krč, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Analysis of light scattering in amorphous Si:H solar cells by a one‐dimensional semi‐coherent optical model,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 15–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Söderström, K.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soppe, W.

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steinhauser, J.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8558–8561 (2007).
[Crossref]

Topic, M.

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jošt, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Camera-based angular resolved spectroscopy system for spatial measurements of scattered light,” Appl. Opt. 53(21), 4795–4803 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Čampa, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Two approaches for incoherent propagation of light in rigorous numerical simulations,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 137, 187–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Krč, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Analysis of light scattering in amorphous Si:H solar cells by a one‐dimensional semi‐coherent optical model,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 15–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Trompoukis, C.

A. Abass, C. Trompoukis, S. Leyre, M. Burgelman, and B. Maes, “Modeling combined coherent and incoherent scattering structures for light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Urbach, H. P.

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8558–8561 (2007).
[Crossref]

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jäger, M. Fischer, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for nano-textured interfaces and its application in opto-electrical simulations of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vanecek, M.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[Crossref]

Veerman, J. A. C.

Wagner, H.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wieder, S.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zeman, M.

K. Jäger, D. N. P. Linssen, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Ambiguities in optical simulations of nanotextured thin-film solar cells using the finite-element method,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1060–A1071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jäger, M. Fischer, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for nano-textured interfaces and its application in opto-electrical simulations of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083108 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, L. Zhao, and M. Zeman, “Light scattering properties of surface-textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 7, 945–948 (2010).

K. Jäger and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, L. Zhao, and M. Zeman, “Light scattering properties of surface-textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 7, 945–948 (2010).

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Y. Kim, R. Santbergen, K. Jäger, M. Sever, J. Krč, M. Topič, S. Hänni, C. Zhang, A. Heidt, M. Meier, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(24), 22061–22068 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Müller-Meskamp, Y. H. Kim, T. Roch, S. Hofmann, R. Scholz, S. Eckardt, K. Leo, and A. F. Lasagni, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by fabricating periodic surface textures using direct laser interference patterning,” Adv. Mater. 24(7), 906–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gaynor, S. Hofmann, M. G. Christoforo, C. Sachse, S. Mehra, A. Salleo, M. D. McGehee, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, P. Peumans, and K. Leo, “Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 4006–4013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jäger, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Jäger and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171108 (2009).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

K. Jäger, M. Fischer, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for nano-textured interfaces and its application in opto-electrical simulations of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083108 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Abass, C. Trompoukis, S. Leyre, M. Burgelman, and B. Maes, “Modeling combined coherent and incoherent scattering structures for light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. (1)

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, L. Zhao, and M. Zeman, “Light scattering properties of surface-textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 7, 945–948 (2010).

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[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

A. Čampa, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Two approaches for incoherent propagation of light in rigorous numerical simulations,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 137, 187–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

J. Krč, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Analysis of light scattering in amorphous Si:H solar cells by a one‐dimensional semi‐coherent optical model,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 15–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, A. Čampa, G. Sánchez Plaza, F.-J. Haug, M. Duchamp, W. Soppe, and M. Topič, “Combined model of non-conformal layer growth for accurate optical simulation of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 59–66 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Čampa, M. Meier, M. Boccard, L. V. Mercaldo, M. Ghosh, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, J. Krč, F.-J. Haug, and M. Topič, “Micromorph silicon solar cell optical performance: Influence of intermediate reflector and front electrode surface texture,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 130, 401–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

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K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films 519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO : Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Opto-electronic properties of rough LP-CVD ZnO:B for use as TCO in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8558–8561 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 AFM scan of: (a) – LP-CVD ZnO:B, (b) – SP-E ZnO:Al.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A schematic representation of the coupled approach of ADF calculation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of ADFs in transmission, obtained using the Fraunhofer slit equation and the coupled approach. The structure is depicted in the insert and is made of 4 slits. Period P of the slits is 2 µm and width W of the slits is 500 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of simulated ADFs in transmission considering entire field (static and dynamic), solely static component (aperture function) of electromagnetic field, deconvoluted ADF (reconstructed function) and analytically determined angles of the scattering orders. Sinusoidal texture in a hexagonal lattice (top view shown at the top right) of P = 2309 nm and h = 450 nm was used.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 3-D ADF for distance of observation of 10 µm, 30 µm, 50 µm and 1 m (for (A) – (D)). Interface morphology is a hexagonal periodic sinusoidal texture. Left halves of the polar plots correspond to material on transmissive side of n2 = 1 and right halves to a material of n2 = 3.5. Material of n1 = 2 was used on incident side. ϕ is azimuthal angle, ϴ is deviation angle.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated and measured ADFs – left graphs are cross-sections whereas the middle and the right graphs are 3-D ADFs. Roman numerals link the corresponding 3-D ADFs to the 2-D ADFs (azimuthal averaging). Symbols and full lines show comparison of measurement to the corresponding simulation. (A) – ADFs in transmission for LP-CVD ZnO:B texture in air. I and II show the ADF after and before the deconvolution, respectively. (B) – ADFs in reflection for LP-CVD ZnO:B texture. III and IV show the ADF in air and p-a-SiC:H, respectively. (C) – ADFs in transmission for SP-E ZnO:Al texture. V and VI show the ADF in air and p-a-SiC:H, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Real (n) and imaginary (k) part of the refractive indices used in the simulation at λ = 633 nm.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of calculated and measured total transmittance (TTOT) or reflectance (RTOT) and Haze parameter for different conditions*

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ¯ ( r ¯ ) = s d S { i ω μ G ¯ ¯ ( r ¯ , r ¯ ) [ n ^ × H ¯ ( r ¯ ) ] + × G ¯ ¯ ( r ¯ , r ¯ ) [ n ^ × E ¯ ( r ¯ ) ] }
H ¯ ( r ¯ ) = s d S { i ω ϵ G ¯ ¯ ( r ¯ , r ¯ ) [ n ^ × E ¯ ( r ¯ ) ] + × G ¯ ¯ ( r ¯ , r ¯ ) [ n ^ × H ¯ ( r ¯ ) ] }
G ¯ ¯ ( r ¯ , r ¯ ' ) = [ I ¯ ¯ + 1 k 2 ] g ( r ¯ , r ¯ ' ) ,
g ( r ¯ , r ¯ ' ) = e i k | r ¯ r ¯ ' | 4 π | r ¯ r ¯ ' | .
I ( θ ) = I 0   sinc 2 ( W sin θ λ ) sin 2 ( π N P   sin ( θ ) λ ) sin 2 ( π P   sin ( θ ) λ   ) ,
( f g ) ( x , y ) = f ( a , b ) g ( x a , y b ) d a   d b ,
E ¯ ( r ¯ ' ) = E ¯ ¯ S + E ¯ ˜ ( r ¯ ' ) ,
H ¯ ( r ¯ ' ) = H ¯ ¯ S + H ¯ ˜ ( r ¯ ' ) .
P ¯ = S d S { 1 2 | R e ( E ¯ ¯ S × H ¯ ¯ S * ) | } ,
P ˜ = S d S { 1 2 | R e ( E ¯ ˜ ( r ¯ ' ) × H ¯ ˜ ( r ¯ ' ) * ) | } .
H a z e ( λ ) = P ˜ ( λ ) P ˜ ( λ ) + P ¯ ( λ ) .

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