Abstract

We present a review of existing and potential next-generation far-infrared (20-60 μm) optical materials and devices. The far-infrared is currently one of the few remaining frontiers on the optical spectrum, a space underdeveloped and lacking in many of the optical and optoelectronic materials and devices taken for granted in other, more technologically mature wavelength ranges. The challenges associated with developing optical materials, structures, and devices at these wavelengths are in part a result of the strong phonon absorption in the Reststrahlen bands of III-V semiconductors that collectively span the far-infrared. More than just an underexplored spectral band, the far-IR may also be of potential importance for a range of sensing applications in astrochemistry, biology, and industrial and geological processes. Additionally, with a suitable far-IR optical infrastructure, it is conceivable that even more applications could emerge. In this review, we will present recent progress on far-infrared materials and phenomena such as phononic surface modes, engineered composite materials, and optoelectronic devices that have the potential to serve as the next generation of components in a far-infrared optical tool-kit.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

J. D. Caldwell, L. Lindsay, V. Giannini, I. Vurgaftman, T. L. Reinecke, S. A. Maier, and O. J. Glembocki, “Low-loss, infrared and terahertz nanophotonics using surface phonon polaritons,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 44–68 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Streyer, K. Feng, Y. Zhong, A. J. Hoffman, and D. Wasserman, “Selective absorbers and thermal emitters for far-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

W. Streyer, S. Law, A. Rosenberg, C. Roberts, V. A. Podolskiy, A. J. Hoffman, and D. Wasserman, “Engineering absorption and blackbody radiation in the far-infrared with surface phonon polaritons on gallium phosphide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 131105 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Law, C. Roberts, T. Kilpatrick, L. Yu, T. Ribaudo, E. A. Shaner, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “All-semiconductor negative-index plasmonic absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: challenges and opportunities,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 135–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021113 (2013).
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M. Freitag, T. Low, W. Zhu, H. Yan, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent in graphene harnessed by tunable intrinsic plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1951 (2013).
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S. Law, L. Yu, and D. Wasserman, “Epitaxial growth of engineered metals for mid-infrared plasmonics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31, 03C121 (2013).
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F. Cataldo, D. A. Garcia-Hernandez, and A. Manchado, “Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions and asphaltenes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429(4), 3025–3039 (2013).
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S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: The opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
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M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
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T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Single-peak narrow-bandwidth mid-infrared thermal emitters based on quantum wells and photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191110 (2013).
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2012 (12)

G. C. R. Devarapu and S. Foteinopoulou, “Mid-IR near-perfect absorption with a SiC photonic crystal with angle-controlled polarization selectivity,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13040–13054 (2012).
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C. Wu, B. Neuner, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, S. Savoy, and G. Shvets, “Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024005 (2012).
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K. H. Michaelian, Q. Wen, B. E. Billinghurst, J. M. Shaw, and V. Lastovka, “Far- and mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra of tetracene, pentacene, perylene, and pyrene,” Vib. Spectrosc. 58, 50–56 (2012).
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G. Shkerdin, S. Rabbaa, J. Stiens, and R. Vounckx, “Free-electron absorption in n-doped GaN semiconductors at mid-IR wavelengths in the strong phonon-plasmon coupling regime,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(49), 495103 (2012).
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V. N. Guilengui, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and T. Taliercio, “Localized surface plasmon resonances in highly doped semiconductors nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161113 (2012).
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S. Law, D. C. Adams, A. M. Taylor, and D. Wasserman, “Mid-infrared designer metals,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12155–12165 (2012).
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G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
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G. V. Naik, J. L. Schroeder, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, T. D. Sands, and A. Boltasseva, “Titanium nitride as a plasmonic material for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 478–489 (2012).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
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F. F. Sudradjat, W. Zhang, J. Woodward, H. Durmaz, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Far-infrared intersubband photodetectors based on double-step III-nitride quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241113 (2012).
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2011 (9)

M. J. Coppinger, N. A. Sustersic, J. Kolodzey, and T. H. Allik, “Sensitivity of a vanadium oxide uncooled microbolometer array for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(5), 053206 (2011).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
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M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
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J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
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G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, “Oxides and nitrides as alternative plasmonic materials in the optical range,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(6), 1090–1099 (2011).
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F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
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J. A. Mason, S. Smith, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective thermal emission from a midinfrared metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241105 (2011).
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X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
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2010 (7)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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J. A. Mason, D. C. Adams, Z. Johnson, S. Smith, A. W. Davis, and D. Wasserman, “Selective thermal emission from patterned steel,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25192–25198 (2010).
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S. E. Han and D. J. Norris, “Beaming thermal emission from hot metallic bull’s eyes,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4829–4837 (2010).
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H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191101 (2010).
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J. W. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. J. Shelton, G. D. Boreman, C. W. Smith, M. Ishigami, R. Soref, A. Drehman, and W. R. Buchwald, “IR permittivities for silicides and doped silicon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 730–734 (2010).
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M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Designing materials for plasmonic systems: the alkali-noble intermetallics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(9), 095501 (2010).
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A. Brown, W. Hsieh, S. H. Moseley, T. R. Stevenson, K. U-yen, E. J. Wollack, K. Uyen, and E. J. Wollack, “Fabrication of an absorber-coupled MKID detector and readout for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 7741, 77410P (2010).
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2009 (3)

T. R. Stevenson, J. S. Adams, W. Hsieh, S. H. Moseley, and D. E. Travers, “K. U-yen, E.J. Wollack, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Superconducting films for absorber-coupled MKID detectors for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 561–564 (2009).
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S. Shen, A. Narayanaswamy, and G. Chen, “Surface phonon polaritons mediated energy transfer between nanoscale gaps,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2909–2913 (2009).
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B. Neuner, D. Korobkin, C. Fietz, D. Carole, G. Ferro, and G. Shvets, “Critically coupled surface phonon-polariton excitation in silicon carbide,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2667–2669 (2009).
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2008 (7)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
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K. Ikeda, H. T. Miyazaki, T. Kasaya, K. Yamamoto, Y. Inoue, K. Fujimura, T. Kanakugi, M. Okada, K. Hatade, and S. Kitagawa, “Controlled thermal emission of polarized infrared waves from arrayed plasmon nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021117 (2008).
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F. Marquier, C. Arnold, M. Laroche, J. J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, “Degree of polarization of thermal light emitted by gratings supporting surface waves,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5305–5313 (2008).
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J. Ibáñez, S. Hernandez, E. Alarcon-Llado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, S. V. Novikov, C. T. Foxon, and E. Calleja, “Far-infrared transmission in GaN, AlN, and AlGaN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033544 (2008).
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A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203104 (2008).
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G. Neto, L. A. L. de Almeida, A. M. N. Lima, C. S. Moreira, H. Neff, I. A. Khrebtov, and V. G. Malyarov, “Figures of merit and optimization of a VO2 microbolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Opt. Eng. 47, 073603 (2008).
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N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6940, 69402Y (2008).
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2007 (5)

S. S. Ng, Z. Hassan, and H. Abu Hassan, “Experimental and theoretical studies of surface phonon polariton of AlN thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081902 (2007).
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W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3771–3782 (2007).
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W. H. Fan, A. Burnett, P. C. Upadhya, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Far-infrared spectroscopic characterization of explosives for security applications using broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(6), 638–643 (2007).
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X. Zheng, C. V. McLaughlin, P. Cunningham, and L. M. Hayden, “Organic broadband terahertz sources and sensors,” J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 2(1), 58 (2007).
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D. Korobkin, Y. A. Urzhumov, B. Neuner, C. Zorman, Z. Zhang, I. D. Mayergoyz, and G. Shvets, “Mid-infrared metamaterial based on perforated SiC membrane: engineering optical response using surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 605–609 (2007).
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2006 (4)

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
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J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, M. Kuttge, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Optically switchable mirrors for surface plasmon polaritons propagating on semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245324 (2006).
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O. Pirali, N.-T. Van-Oanh, P. Parneix, M. Vervloet, and P. Bréchignac, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(32), 3707–3714 (2006).
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A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320x240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
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2005 (4)

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct. 37(2), 107–113 (2005).
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S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
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A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Ben-Abdallah and B. Ni, “Single-defect Bragg stacks for high-power narrow-band thermal emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 104910 (2005).
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2004 (2)

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
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V. D. Jovanović, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonic, and P. Harrison, “Simulation and design of GaN/AlGaN far-infrared (λ ~ 34μm) quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 2995–2997 (2004).
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2003 (1)

M. R. Kutteruf, C. M. Brown, L. K. Iwaki, M. B. Campbell, T. M. Korter, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of short-chain polypeptides,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375(3–4), 337–343 (2003).
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2002 (4)

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
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J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
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R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature 418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
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G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature 420(6912), 153–156 (2002).
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2001 (1)

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2620–2622 (2001).
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2000 (3)

K. Torii, T. Koga, T. Sota, T. Azuhata, S. F. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “An attenuated-total-reflection study on the surface phonon-polariton in GaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(31), 7041–7044 (2000).
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R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
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D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1210–1212 (2000).
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1999 (3)

N. A. van Dantzig and P. C. M. Planken, “Time-resolved far-infrared reflectance of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 1586–1589 (1999).
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M. Kreiter, J. Oster, R. Sambles, S. Herminghaus, S. Mittler-Neher, and W. Knoll, “Thermally induced emission of light from a metallic diffraction grating, mediated by surface plasmons,” Opt. Commun. 168(1–4), 117–122 (1999).
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J. C. Mather, D. J. Fixsen, R. A. Shafer, C. Mosier, and D. T. Wilkinson, “Calibrator Design for the COBE Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS),” Astrophys. J. 512(2), 511–520 (1999).
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1998 (2)

B. K. Wilt, W. T. Welch, and J. G. Rankin, “Determination of asphaltenes in petroleum crude oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 12(5), 1008–1012 (1998).
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H. P. M. Pellemans and P. C. M. Planken, “Effect of nonequilibrium LO phonons and hot electrons on far-infrared intraband absorption in n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 57(8), R4222–R4225 (1998).
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1996 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
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1988 (1)

G. B. Dickakian and S. Seay, “Asphaltene precipitation primary crude exchanger fouling mechanism,” Oil Gas J. 86(10), 47–50 (1988).

1984 (1)

A. Leger and J. L. Puget, “Identification of the ‘unidentified IR emission features of interstellar dust?” Astron. Astrophys. 137(1), L5–L8 (1984).

1973 (1)

D. J. Evans, S. Ushioda, and J. D. McMullen, “Raman Scattering from surface polaritons in a GaAs film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 31(6), 369–372 (1973).
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1972 (1)

N. Marschall and B. Fischer, “Dispersion of surface polaritons in GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(13), 811–813 (1972).
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1970 (1)

W. G. Rothschild and K. D. Moller, “Far-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Today 23(9), 44 (1970).
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1968 (1)

1966 (1)

1953 (1)

Abu Hassan, H.

S. S. Ng, Z. Hassan, and H. Abu Hassan, “Experimental and theoretical studies of surface phonon polariton of AlN thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(8), 081902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Acquista, N.

Adams, D. C.

Adams, J. S.

T. R. Stevenson, J. S. Adams, W. Hsieh, S. H. Moseley, and D. E. Travers, “K. U-yen, E.J. Wollack, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Superconducting films for absorber-coupled MKID detectors for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 561–564 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alarcon-Llado, E.

J. Ibáñez, S. Hernandez, E. Alarcon-Llado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, S. V. Novikov, C. T. Foxon, and E. Calleja, “Far-infrared transmission in GaN, AlN, and AlGaN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allik, T. H.

M. J. Coppinger, N. A. Sustersic, J. Kolodzey, and T. H. Allik, “Sensitivity of a vanadium oxide uncooled microbolometer array for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(5), 053206 (2011).
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Alonso-González, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Arnold, C.

Arnold, M. D.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “Designing materials for plasmonic systems: the alkali-noble intermetallics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(9), 095501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artus, L.

J. Ibáñez, S. Hernandez, E. Alarcon-Llado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, S. V. Novikov, C. T. Foxon, and E. Calleja, “Far-infrared transmission in GaN, AlN, and AlGaN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Single-peak narrow-bandwidth mid-infrared thermal emitters based on quantum wells and photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
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F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
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M. Freitag, T. Low, W. Zhu, H. Yan, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent in graphene harnessed by tunable intrinsic plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1951 (2013).
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H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azuhata, T.

K. Torii, T. Koga, T. Sota, T. Azuhata, S. F. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “An attenuated-total-reflection study on the surface phonon-polariton in GaN,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(31), 7041–7044 (2000).
[Crossref]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3771–3782 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Beeler, M.

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
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Bellet-Amalric, E.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ben-Abdallah, P.

P. Ben-Abdallah and B. Ni, “Single-defect Bragg stacks for high-power narrow-band thermal emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 104910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Billinghurst, B. E.

K. H. Michaelian, Q. Wen, B. E. Billinghurst, J. M. Shaw, and V. Lastovka, “Far- and mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra of tetracene, pentacene, perylene, and pyrene,” Vib. Spectrosc. 58, 50–56 (2012).
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A. Brown, W. Hsieh, S. H. Moseley, T. R. Stevenson, K. U-yen, E. J. Wollack, K. Uyen, and E. J. Wollack, “Fabrication of an absorber-coupled MKID detector and readout for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 7741, 77410P (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6940, 69402Y (2008).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct. 37(2), 107–113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

K. H. Michaelian, Q. Wen, B. E. Billinghurst, J. M. Shaw, and V. Lastovka, “Far- and mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra of tetracene, pentacene, perylene, and pyrene,” Vib. Spectrosc. 58, 50–56 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the (a) collective oscillation of free-carriers and (b) transverse ionic oscillations due to incident light. (c) Far-IR absorption coefficient for intrinsic and doped GaAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Summary of the materials, detectors, and sources that comprise the operational toolkit for Reststrahlen-optics. The abbreviation “HRFZ Si” stands for high resistivity float zone Si.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Real (solid) and imaginary (dotted) permittivity for the III-V semiconductors GaN (green), GaP (blue), AlAs (yellow), InP (orange), GaAs (grey), InAs (magenta), GaSb (cyan) and InSb (red). Permittivity for each material is offset by 20 for clarity. (b) Normal incidence reflectivity for the materials in (a). (c) Dispersion for surface phonon polariton modes on an air-semiconductor interface for the materials in (a). Real kSPhP (solid) plotted on bottom x-axis, while imaginary kSPhP (dotted) plotted on top x-axis. The light line is shown in solid black.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Blackbody (thermal) emission as a function of temperature in the 30-40 (red), 20-30 (orange), 10-20 (yellow), 3-4 (cyan), 2-3 (blue) and 1-2µm (navy) wavelength bands for a 1x1cm2 perfect blackbody emitter. (b) Percentage of the total thermal emission from a blackbody from the above bands. (c) Spectral emittance (in W/m) of a blackbody emitter at 300, 700, 1100, and 1500K, with the wavelength bands from (a) and (b) highlighted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Far-IR reflectivity of Mo/AlN/patterned Ti/Au absorber structures with 1600nm AlN thickness. TM-polarized reflectivity for 1D top gratings having period Λ = 20 µm and stripe widths w = 15µm (solid blue) and w = 17µm (solid red). Unpolarized reflectivity of a 2D grating pattern with Λ = 20 µm and w = 17µm (dotted red). (b) and (c) show schematics for 1D and 2D grating structures, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photocurrent spectrum of a double-step AlGaN FIR QWIP measured at 20K under an applied voltage bias of 0.8V (solid line), and Gaussian fit to the photocurrent data (dashed line). The grey band near the horizontal axis indicates the Reststrahlen band of GaN. The vertical arrow indicates the calculated intersubband transition energy (Reproduced with permission from Ref [75], Copyright 2012, AIP Publishing LLC. (b) Band structure, subband energy separations and wavefunctions of the active region of the proposed Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN THz QCL. Two periods are shown with each period consisting of 3 GaN QWs and 3 Al0.15Ga0.85N barriers with layer thicknesses (Å): 30/40/30/25/20/25 (wells in bold and barrier in plain) under an electric bias of 70 kV/cm (Reproduced with permission from Ref [77], Copyright Elsevier).

Equations (2)

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ε m ( ω ) = ε b ( 1 ω p 2 ω 2 + i γ ω ) , ω p 2 = N e 2 ε o ε b m *
ε p h ( ω ) = ε b ( 1 + ω L O 2 ω 2 ω T O 2 ω 2 i ω Γ )

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