Abstract

We report on generation of 260 fs-short pulses with energy of 1.1 nJ from a fully fiberized, monolithic Tm-doped fiber laser system. The design comprises a simple, graphene-based ultrafast oscillator and an integrated all-fiber chirped pulse amplifier (CPA). The system generates 110 mW of average power at 100.25 MHz repetition rate and central wavelength of 1968 nm. This is, to our knowledge, the highest pulse energy generated from a fully fiberized sub-300 fs Tm-doped laser, without the necessity of using grating-based dispersion compensation. Such compact, robust and cost-effective system might serve as a seed source for nonlinear frequency conversion or mid-infrared supercontinuum generation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3(2), A56–A63 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of 8 nJ pulses from a normal-dispersion thulium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2361–2364 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

Y. Meng, A. Niang, K. Guesmi, M. Salhi, and F. Sanchez, “1.61 μm high-order passive harmonic mode locking in a fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29921–29926 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, A. Ruehl, U. Grosse-Wortmann, and I. Hartl, “Sub-100 fs passively mode-locked holmium-doped fiber oscillator operating at 2.06 μm,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6859–6862 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, “Invited paper: short pulse generation in mid-IR fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 631–641 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2010 (3)

F. Haxsen, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, and D. Kracht, “Pulse characteristics of a passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with positive and negative cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18981–18988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. Kaczmarek, G. Sobon, J. Z. Sotor, A. J. Antonczak, and K. M. Abramski, “Fiber-MOPA sources of coherent radiation,” B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) 58, 485–489 (2010).

2009 (2)

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic vaporesection of the prostate using the continuous-wave 2-microm thulium laser: outcome and demonstration of the surgical technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 µ,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. Kaczmarek, G. Sobon, J. Z. Sotor, A. J. Antonczak, and K. M. Abramski, “Fiber-MOPA sources of coherent radiation,” B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) 58, 485–489 (2010).

Ahn, J. H.

Antonczak, A. J.

P. R. Kaczmarek, G. Sobon, J. Z. Sotor, A. J. Antonczak, and K. M. Abramski, “Fiber-MOPA sources of coherent radiation,” B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) 58, 485–489 (2010).

Arutyunyan, N. R.

Byer, R. L.

C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. P.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chernysheva, M. A.

Chong, A.

Dianov, E. M.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Engelbrecht, M.

Ferrari, A. C.

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 µ,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, B.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Fuchs, P.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, J.

Gerschuetz, F.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golling, M.

Götschl, R.

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic vaporesection of the prostate using the continuous-wave 2-microm thulium laser: outcome and demonstration of the surgical technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grosse-Wortmann, U.

Guesmi, K.

Haiml, M.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Hasan, T.

Haxsen, F.

Hildebrandt, L.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, Y.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Hudson, D. D.

D. D. Hudson, “Invited paper: short pulse generation in mid-IR fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 631–641 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jhon, Y. M.

Jiang, S.

Jung, M.

Kaczmarek, P. R.

P. R. Kaczmarek, G. Sobon, J. Z. Sotor, A. J. Antonczak, and K. M. Abramski, “Fiber-MOPA sources of coherent radiation,” B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) 58, 485–489 (2010).

Kärtner, F. X.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Keller, U.

Koeth, J.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, J.

Kracht, D.

Krajewska, A.

Krylov, A. A.

Kryukov, P. G.

Kulmala, T. S.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Lee, Y.

Li, M.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

Lu, Y.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, T.

Mangold, M.

Meng, Y.

Milana, S.

Morgner, U.

Murray, K. E.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 µ,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naehle, L.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neumann, J.

Niang, A.

Obraztsova, E. D.

Paras, L.

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic vaporesection of the prostate using the continuous-wave 2-microm thulium laser: outcome and demonstration of the surgical technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Pasternak, I.

Popa, D.

Popov, S. V.

Pozharov, A. S.

Razmaria, A.

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic vaporesection of the prostate using the continuous-wave 2-microm thulium laser: outcome and demonstration of the surgical technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudy, C. W.

C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruehl, A.

Salhi, M.

Sanchez, F.

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schmeller, N. T.

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic vaporesection of the prostate using the continuous-wave 2-microm thulium laser: outcome and demonstration of the surgical technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sieber, O. D.

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3(2), A56–A63 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. Kaczmarek, G. Sobon, J. Z. Sotor, A. J. Antonczak, and K. M. Abramski, “Fiber-MOPA sources of coherent radiation,” B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) 58, 485–489 (2010).

Song, Y.-W.

Sotor, J.

Sotor, J. Z.

P. R. Kaczmarek, G. Sobon, J. Z. Sotor, A. J. Antonczak, and K. M. Abramski, “Fiber-MOPA sources of coherent radiation,” B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) 58, 485–489 (2010).

Strupinski, W.

Sun, Z.

Sundaram, R. S.

Szlauer, R.

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic vaporesection of the prostate using the continuous-wave 2-microm thulium laser: outcome and demonstration of the surgical technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

Taylor, J. R.

Thoen, E. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

Wandt, D.

Wang, F.

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wienke, A.

Wise, F. W.

Wittwer, V. J.

Xiao, X.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Yang, C.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Zaugg, C. A.

Zeller, W.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhu, H.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 70(S1), S41–S49 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) (1)

P. R. Kaczmarek, G. Sobon, J. Z. Sotor, A. J. Antonczak, and K. M. Abramski, “Fiber-MOPA sources of coherent radiation,” B. Pol. Acad, Sci. Tech. (Paris) 58, 485–489 (2010).

Eur. Urol. (1)

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic vaporesection of the prostate using the continuous-wave 2-microm thulium laser: outcome and demonstration of the surgical technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).

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N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 µ,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Chernysheva, A. A. Krylov, P. G. Kryukov, N. R. Arutyunyan, A. S. Pozharov, E. D. Obraztsova, and E. M. Dianov, “Thulium-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser based on NALM and carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(26), B124–B130 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Haxsen, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, and D. Kracht, “Pulse characteristics of a passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with positive and negative cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18981–18988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Haxsen, A. Ruehl, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “Stretched-pulse operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20471–20476 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Meng, A. Niang, K. Guesmi, M. Salhi, and F. Sanchez, “1.61 μm high-order passive harmonic mode locking in a fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29921–29926 (2014).
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C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, V. J. Wittwer, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31548–31559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, “Invited paper: short pulse generation in mid-IR fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 631–641 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photonics Res. (1)

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3(2), A56–A63 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, “2 µm Laser Sources and Their Possible Applications”, in: “Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics”, B. Pal (Ed.), InTech, India, 2010.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the Tm-doped fiber laser system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Saturable absorption curve of the 12-layer graphene composite measured at 1560 nm (a), broadband absorption of the SA in the linear regime (b). Inset: photograph of a 12 layer graphene/PMMA foil.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical spectra observed at different stages: (from top to bottom) oscillator, after stretching in the DCF fiber, after amplification and after recompression in the SMF.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Measured RF spectrum of the oscillator, b) autocorrelation traces of the seed (blue dashed-dotted line) and the amplified pulse (red line).

Equations (1)

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T(F)= ΔT F F sat + ( F F sat ) 2 atanh( F F sat +F )+( 1 α NS ),

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