Abstract

Flexible InGaN-based green light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by transferring epilayer to a flexible polyimide substrate with laser lift-off (LLO) and double-transfer technologies. We present a method of increasing light output power in flexible LEDs without modifying their epitaxial layers. These improvements are achieved by reducing the quantum-confined Stark effect by reducing piezoelectric polarization that results from compressive stress in the GaN epilayer. The compressive stress is relaxed due to the external stress induced by increasing bending displacement of flexible substrate. The light output power of the flexible LED at an injection current of 150 mA is increased by approximately 42.2%, as the external bending went to the case of effective length of 15 mm. The experimental results demonstrated that applying external tensile stress effectively compensates for the compressive strain and changes the piezoelectric field in the InGaN/GaN MQWs region, thereby increases the probability of radiative recombination.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, S. Lahmann, and U. Rossow, “Composition dependence of polarization fields in GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1169 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(5), 304–312 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. W. S. Choi, H. J. Park, S. H. Park, and T. Jeong, “Flexible InGaN LEDs on a polyimide substrate fabricated using a simple direct-transfer method,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(21), 2115–2117 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. I. Ahmad, M. Holtza, N. N. Faleev, and H. Temkin, “Dependence of the stress–temperature coefficient on dislocation density in epitaxial GaN grown on α-Al2O3 and 6H–SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(4), 1692–1797 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Choi, H. J. Park, S. H. Park, and T. Jeong, “Flexible InGaN LEDs on a polyimide substrate fabricated using a simple direct-transfer method,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(21), 2115–2117 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(5), 304–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. Ahmad, M. Holtza, N. N. Faleev, and H. Temkin, “Dependence of the stress–temperature coefficient on dislocation density in epitaxial GaN grown on α-Al2O3 and 6H–SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(4), 1692–1797 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, S. Lahmann, and U. Rossow, “Composition dependence of polarization fields in GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

I. Ahmad, M. Holtza, N. N. Faleev, and H. Temkin, “Dependence of the stress–temperature coefficient on dislocation density in epitaxial GaN grown on α-Al2O3 and 6H–SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(4), 1692–1797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bae, S. J.

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, J. H.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barange, N.

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaton, D. A.

B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beechem, T. E.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. Y.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. H.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. L.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(5), 304–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, C. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. S.

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, R. J.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. S.

W. S. Choi, H. J. Park, S. H. Park, and T. Jeong, “Flexible InGaN LEDs on a polyimide substrate fabricated using a simple direct-transfer method,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(21), 2115–2117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. S.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chou, J. C.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chun, J.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ee, Y. K.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Faleev, N. N.

I. Ahmad, M. Holtza, N. N. Faleev, and H. Temkin, “Dependence of the stress–temperature coefficient on dislocation density in epitaxial GaN grown on α-Al2O3 and 6H–SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(4), 1692–1797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fluegel, B.

B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, S.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ha, J. S.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hahn, Y. B.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Han, I. K.

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M. S.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Han, S. H.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hangleiter, A.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, S. Lahmann, and U. Rossow, “Composition dependence of polarization fields in GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hitzel, F.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, S. Lahmann, and U. Rossow, “Composition dependence of polarization fields in GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Holtza, M.

I. Ahmad, M. Holtza, N. N. Faleev, and H. Temkin, “Dependence of the stress–temperature coefficient on dislocation density in epitaxial GaN grown on α-Al2O3 and 6H–SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(4), 1692–1797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. Y.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsu, H. K.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. C.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, G. S.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, Y.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeong, T.

W. S. Choi, H. J. Park, S. H. Park, and T. Jeong, “Flexible InGaN LEDs on a polyimide substrate fabricated using a simple direct-transfer method,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(21), 2115–2117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kachi, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kano, H.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, G. C.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. T.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. D.

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. S.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ko, D. H.

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, H.

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, H. C.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koide, N.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koo, B. H.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kozawa, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. Y.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lahmann, S.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, S. Lahmann, and U. Rossow, “Composition dependence of polarization fields in GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. K.

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. T.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. C.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. C.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, W. H.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X. H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. L.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. Y.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. Y.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manabe, K.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mascarenhas, A.

B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mialitsin, A. V.

B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, G. O.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nagase, H.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ohno, Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. J.

W. S. Choi, H. J. Park, S. H. Park, and T. Jeong, “Flexible InGaN LEDs on a polyimide substrate fabricated using a simple direct-transfer method,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(21), 2115–2117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

W. S. Choi, H. J. Park, S. H. Park, and T. Jeong, “Flexible InGaN LEDs on a polyimide substrate fabricated using a simple direct-transfer method,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(21), 2115–2117 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Penn, S. T.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pong, B. J.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J. D.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rossow, U.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, S. Lahmann, and U. Rossow, “Composition dependence of polarization fields in GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ryu, B.

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S. W.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, H. W.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(5), 304–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suh, E. K.

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tawfik, W. Z.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Temkin, H.

I. Ahmad, M. Holtza, N. N. Faleev, and H. Temkin, “Dependence of the stress–temperature coefficient on dislocation density in epitaxial GaN grown on α-Al2O3 and 6H–SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(4), 1692–1797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tong, H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tu, S. H.

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

Uang, K. M.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, P. R.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. J.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. H.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H. P.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, S. Lahmann, and U. Rossow, “Composition dependence of polarization fields in GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. J. Choi, Y. B. Hahn, H. W. Shim, M. S. Han, E. K. Suh, and H. J. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283(15), 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. Y. Hsieh, X. Zheng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhanced luminance efficiency of wafer-bonded InGaN-GaN LEDs with double-side textured surfaces and omnidirectional reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1116–1123 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

W. S. Choi, H. J. Park, S. H. Park, and T. Jeong, “Flexible InGaN LEDs on a polyimide substrate fabricated using a simple direct-transfer method,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(21), 2115–2117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y. S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S. J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from sapphire to flexible substrates by laser lift-off and contact printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2118 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4492 (1995).
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T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[Crossref]

I. Ahmad, M. Holtza, N. N. Faleev, and H. Temkin, “Dependence of the stress–temperature coefficient on dislocation density in epitaxial GaN grown on α-Al2O3 and 6H–SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(4), 1692–1797 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Barange, Y. D. Kim, H. Ko, J. S. Park, B. Park, D. H. Ko, and I. K. Han, “Blue inorganic light emitting diode on flexible polyimide substrate using laser lift-off process,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8237–8241 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Ryu, W. Z. Tawfik, S. J. Bae, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, and J. K. Lee, “Uni-axial external stress effect on green InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(43), 435103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, H. W. Shim, G. C. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal wells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. T. Lee, Y. C. Lee, S. H. Tu, C. L. Lin, P. H. Chen, C. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Chang, “Mechanism underlying damage induced in gallium nitride epilayer during laser lift-off process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 930–932 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(5), 304–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Fluegel, A. V. Mialitsin, D. A. Beaton, J. L. Reno, and A. Mascarenhas, “Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flex-LED process flowchart: (a) Sapphire-based LED device, (b) Bonding to temporary substrate, (c) LLO sapphire, (d) Removing u-GaN and roughening n-GaN layer, (e) Glue bond on PI/glass substrate, (f) Completed Flex-LED structure and photograph. The inset of (f) shows the LEDs epilayers being transferred to the PI substrate before and after bending.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Definition of Le and the light emission image of the Flex-LED (@20 mA).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Raman spectra of the R-LED, NF-LED, F-LED-15 and F-LED-10. (b) Schematic band structure of F-LED before and after applying external tensile stress. (c) Built-in stress as a function of the flexible LED bowed curvature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EL peak wavelengths of R-LED, NF-LED, F-LED-15 and F-LED-10 as a function of the injection current.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Light output power and WPE against the injection current for the R-LED, NF-LED, F-LED-15 and F-LED-10.

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