Abstract

We have developed laser-diode-based optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (LD-OR-PAM) of superficial microvasculature which has the desirable properties of being compact, low-cost, and label-free. A 300-mW visible pulsed laser diode was operated at a 405 ± 5 nm wavelength with a pulse energy as low as 52 nJ. By using a 3.6 MHz ultrasound transducer, the system was tested on carbon fibers with a lateral resolution of 0.95 µm and an SNR of 38 dB. The subcutaneous microvasculature on a mouse back was imaged without an exogenous contrast agent which demonstrates the potential of the proposed prototype for skin chromophores. Our eventual goal is to offer a practical and affordable multi-wavelength functional LD-OR-PAM instrument suitable for clinical applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (6)

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

B. Ning, M. J. Kennedy, A. J. Dixon, N. Sun, R. Cao, B. T. Soetikno, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. Kirk Shung, J. A. Hossack, and S. Hu, “Simultaneous photoacoustic microscopy of microvascular anatomy, oxygen saturation, and blood flow,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 910–913 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hajireza, J. Sorge, M. Brett, and R. Zemp, “In vivo optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using glancing angle-deposited nanostructured Fabry-Perot etalons,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1350–1353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Beckmann, H. M. Schwab, and G. Schmitz, “Optimized SNR simultaneous multispectral photoacoustic imaging with laser diodes,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1816–1828 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Upputuri and M. Pramanik, “Performance characterization of low-cost, high-speed, portable pulsed laser diode photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 4118–4129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (10)

T. Wang, S. Nandy, H. S. Salehi, P. D. Kumavor, and Q. Zhu, “A low-cost photoacoustic microscopy system with a laser diode excitation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3053–3058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Cost-efficient laser-diode-induced optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for two-dimensional/three-dimensional biomedical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Sensitivity of photoacoustic microscopy,” Photoacoustics 2(2), 87–101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and L. Gao, “Photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography: from bench to bedside,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 16(1), 155–185 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Mattison and B. E. Applegate, “Simplified method for ultra high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy via transient absorption,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4474–4477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, S. Chen, H. Zou, Q. Li, J. Fu, F. Lin, and X. Wu, “Fabrication of micro-axicons using direct-laser writing,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11035–11042 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, J. Chen, J. Yao, R. Lin, J. Meng, C. Liu, J. Yang, X. Li, L. Wang, and L. Song, “Multi-parametric quantitative microvascular imaging with optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1500–1511 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Daoudi, P. J. van den Berg, O. Rabot, A. Kohl, S. Tisserand, P. Brands, and W. Steenbergen, “Handheld probe integrating laser diode and ultrasound transducer array for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual modality imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26365–26374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, Q. Huang, and Y. Li, “Measurement of cardiac output by use of noninvasively measured transient hemodilution curves with photoacoustic technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1445–1452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

P. Leboulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Slow-sound photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053704 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. M. Strohm, E. S. L. Berndl, and M. C. Kolios, “High frequency label-free photoacoustic microscopy of single cells,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 49–53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, “Pulsed near-infrared laser diode excitation system for biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3462–3464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, T. J.

Anastasio, M. A.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Beard, P.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Beard, P. C.

Beckmann, M. F.

Berndl, E. S. L.

E. M. Strohm, E. S. L. Berndl, and M. C. Kolios, “High frequency label-free photoacoustic microscopy of single cells,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 49–53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brands, P.

Brett, M.

Cao, R.

Chen, J.

Chen, R.

Chen, S.

Cox, B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Daoudi, K.

Dixon, A. J.

Friedrich, C. S.

Fu, J.

Gao, L.

L. V. Wang and L. Gao, “Photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography: from bench to bedside,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 16(1), 155–185 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerhardt, N. C.

Hajireza, P.

Hofmann, M. R.

Hossack, J. A.

Hu, S.

Huang, C.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. H.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

Huang, Q.

Jathoul, A. P.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Ji, L.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, X.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Cost-efficient laser-diode-induced optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for two-dimensional/three-dimensional biomedical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053704 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Kang, D.

Kennedy, M. J.

Kirk Shung, K.

Kohl, A.

Kolios, M. C.

E. M. Strohm, E. S. L. Berndl, and M. C. Kolios, “High frequency label-free photoacoustic microscopy of single cells,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 49–53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumavor, P. D.

Laufer, J.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Leboulluec, P.

P. Leboulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Slow-sound photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P. C.

Li, Q.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Lin, F.

Lin, R.

Liu, C.

Liu, G.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Cost-efficient laser-diode-induced optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for two-dimensional/three-dimensional biomedical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053704 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

P. Leboulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lythgoe, M. F.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Marafioti, T.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Maslov, K.

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattison, S. P.

Meng, J.

Mienkina, M. P.

Nandy, S.

Nie, L.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ning, B.

Ogunlade, O.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Pedley, R. B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Philip, B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Pizzey, A. R.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Pramanik, M.

Pule, M. a.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Rabot, O.

Rao, B.

Salehi, H. S.

Schiffner, M. F.

Schmitz, G.

Schoonover, R. W.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwab, H. M.

Soetikno, B. T.

Song, L.

Sorge, J.

Steenbergen, W.

Strohm, E. M.

E. M. Strohm, E. S. L. Berndl, and M. C. Kolios, “High frequency label-free photoacoustic microscopy of single cells,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 49–53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, S. Y.

Sun, N.

Tisserand, S.

Treeby, B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Upputuri, P. K.

van den Berg, P. J.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, J. Chen, J. Yao, R. Lin, J. Meng, C. Liu, J. Yang, X. Li, L. Wang, and L. Song, “Multi-parametric quantitative microvascular imaging with optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1500–1511 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Sensitivity of photoacoustic microscopy,” Photoacoustics 2(2), 87–101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and L. Gao, “Photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography: from bench to bedside,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 16(1), 155–185 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Slow-sound photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Wong, T. T. W.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

Xiang, L.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, D.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Cost-efficient laser-diode-induced optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for two-dimensional/three-dimensional biomedical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053704 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yang, J. M.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, J. Chen, J. Yao, R. Lin, J. Meng, C. Liu, J. Yang, X. Li, L. Wang, and L. Song, “Multi-parametric quantitative microvascular imaging with optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1500–1511 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Sensitivity of photoacoustic microscopy,” Photoacoustics 2(2), 87–101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, B.

P. Leboulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zemp, R.

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Cost-efficient laser-diode-induced optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for two-dimensional/three-dimensional biomedical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053704 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Slow-sound photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, E.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Zhou, Q.

Zhou, Y.

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Slow-sound photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Zou, H.

Zou, J.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

P. Leboulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

L. V. Wang and L. Gao, “Photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography: from bench to bedside,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 16(1), 155–185 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053704 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Slow-sound photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Cost-efficient laser-diode-induced optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for two-dimensional/three-dimensional biomedical imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076017 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. a. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Opt. Express (7)

Z. Yang, J. Chen, J. Yao, R. Lin, J. Meng, C. Liu, J. Yang, X. Li, L. Wang, and L. Song, “Multi-parametric quantitative microvascular imaging with optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1500–1511 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Mienkina, C. S. Friedrich, N. C. Gerhardt, M. F. Beckmann, M. F. Schiffner, M. R. Hofmann, and G. Schmitz, “Multispectral photoacoustic coded excitation imaging using unipolar orthogonal Golay codes,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9076–9087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Beckmann, H. M. Schwab, and G. Schmitz, “Optimized SNR simultaneous multispectral photoacoustic imaging with laser diodes,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1816–1828 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Su and P. C. Li, “Coded excitation for photoacoustic imaging using a high-speed diode laser,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1174–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Daoudi, P. J. van den Berg, O. Rabot, A. Kohl, S. Tisserand, P. Brands, and W. Steenbergen, “Handheld probe integrating laser diode and ultrasound transducer array for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual modality imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26365–26374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, S. Chen, H. Zou, Q. Li, J. Fu, F. Lin, and X. Wu, “Fabrication of micro-axicons using direct-laser writing,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11035–11042 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photoacoustics (2)

E. M. Strohm, E. S. L. Berndl, and M. C. Kolios, “High frequency label-free photoacoustic microscopy of single cells,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 49–53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Sensitivity of photoacoustic microscopy,” Photoacoustics 2(2), 87–101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

American National Standards Institute Inc, (ANSI), ANSI Z136.1–2007: American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photo of the compact laser diode compared with a quarter coin. (b) Photo of the assembled laser diode excitation. (c) Pulse width of the laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the VIS LD-OR-PAM system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time-resolved PA signal from a human hair averaged 1 time and 16 times. (b) Corresponding PA signal after low-pass filtering averaged 1 time and 16 times. LPF: Low-pass filtering.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) MAP image of a ~7 µm carbon fiber edge. Inset: optical image with a 40X objective. (b) Lateral resolution of the VIS LD-OR-PAM defined by the averaged edge-spread function (ESF) and its derivative.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Cross-sectional image of the carbon fiber network. (b) MAP image by depth-scanning; arrows and ellipses denote carbon fibers and surface flaws, respectively. NPA: Normalized photoacoustic amplitude.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photo of subcutaneous microvasculature on a mouse back. (b) Ex vivo MAP image acquired with VIS LD-OR-PAM; arrow denotes a blood capillary with a diameter of ~15 µm.

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