Abstract

The integration of germanium (Ge)-rich active devices in photonic integrated circuits is challenging due to the lattice mismatch between silicon (Si) and Ge. A new Ge-rich silicon-germanium (SiGe) waveguide on graded buffer was investigated as a platform for integrated photonic circuits. At a wavelength of 1550 nm, low loss bends with radii as low as 12 µm and Multimode Interferometer beam splitter based on Ge-rich SiGe waveguide on graded buffer were designed, fabricated and characterized. A Mach Zehnder interferometer exhibiting a contrast of more than 10 dB has been demonstrated.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (5)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, D. Feng, J. Lexau, J. F. Buckwalter, H. D. Thacker, F. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, S. S. Djordjevic, J. H. Lee, S. Lin, H. Liang, A. Abed, R. Shafiiha, K. Raj, R. Ho, M. Asghari, and J. E. Cunningham, “A low-power, high-speed, 9-channel germanium-silicon electro-absorption modulator array integrated with digital CMOS driver and wavelength multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12289–12295 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, “Monolithically integrated Ge-on-Si active photonics,” Photonics 1(3), 162–197 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

Abed, A.

Absil, P.

Akiyama, S.

Amberg, P.

Asghari, M.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Boeuf, F.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogris, A.

Bouville, D.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brun, M.

Buckwalter, J. F.

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cassan, E.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, E.

Chen, H. T.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cherchi, M.

Chrastina, D.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozat, P.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

De Coster, J.

De Heyn, P.

Demeester, P.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, S. S.

Edmond, S.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ettabib, M. A.

Fédéli, J.-M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

Frigerio, J.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gollhofer, M.

Groen, F. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Halbout, J. M.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hammani, K.

Harjanne, M.

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Ho, R.

Hu, Y.

Ikonic, Z.

Isella, G.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iyer, S. S.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapsalis, A.

Kapulainen, M.

Kasper, E.

Kawachi, M.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kelsall, R. W.

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kitoh, T.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koerner, R.

Kostecki, K.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labeye, P.

Le Roux, X.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leadley, D. R.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lepage, G.

Lever, L.

Lexau, J.

Liang, H.

Lin, S.

Littlejohns, C. G.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, “Monolithically integrated Ge-on-Si active photonics,” Photonics 1(3), 162–197 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Luo, Y.

Mallinson, C. F.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marko, I. P.

Marris-Morini, D.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metaal, E. G.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myronov, M.

Nedeljkovic, M.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicoletti, S.

Oehme, M.

Oei, Y. S.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Owens, N.

Patel, N.

Pesarcik, S. F.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

Pogossian, S. P.

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Popovic, K.

Raj, K.

Reed, G. T.

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Roelkens, G.

Romagnoli, M.

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roufied, M. S.

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rouifed, M. S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouifed, M.-S.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

Schulze, J.

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

Smit, M. K.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Spiekman, L. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, S. J.

Syvridis, D.

Takato, N.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H. D.

Treyz, G. V.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vescan, L.

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

Virot, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vonsovici, A.

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

Watts, J. F.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widmann, D.

Yasu, M.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ylinen, S.

Zheng, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

R. Koerner, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, K. Kostecki, S. Bechler, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electrically pumped lasing from Ge Fabry-Perot resonators on Si,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14815–14822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, D. Feng, J. Lexau, J. F. Buckwalter, H. D. Thacker, F. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, S. S. Djordjevic, J. H. Lee, S. Lin, H. Liang, A. Abed, R. Shafiiha, K. Raj, R. Ho, M. Asghari, and J. E. Cunningham, “A low-power, high-speed, 9-channel germanium-silicon electro-absorption modulator array integrated with digital CMOS driver and wavelength multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12289–12295 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hammani, M. A. Ettabib, A. Bogris, A. Kapsalis, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Optical properties of silicon germanium waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16690–16701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cherchi, S. Ylinen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and T. Aalto, “Dramatic size reduction of waveguide bends on a micron-scale silicon photonic platform,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17814–17823 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics (1)

J. Liu, “Monolithically integrated Ge-on-Si active photonics,” Photonics 1(3), 162–197 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross section of the slightly-etched Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguide on graded buffer, (b) corresponding optical mode (TE-polarization), (c) schematic cross section of the deeply-etched Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguide, (d) corresponding optical mode (TE-polarization), (e) optical microscope view of the transition between a slightly-etched and a deeply-etched waveguide to increase the light confinement at the bends (deeply-etched regions appear darker), (f) numerical simulation of light propagation (TE polarization) along the transition, calculated by eigenmode expansion solver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical microscope view of the bending test structure (b), zoom of the 90° bend and its deeply-etched region, (c) Measured losses of the 90° bends as function of bend radius

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MMI Beam splitter: (a) Schematic view of the device, (b) Propagation simulation of the electric field component (waveguide cross section is in Fig. 1(b))

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Asymmetric Mach Zehnder: (a) general schematic view, (b) optical microscope view of the MMI, (c) optical microscope view of the waveguide separation after the MMI, (d) Optical transmission as a function of the wavelength. The free spectral range of 24.4 nm is related to the length difference of 24 µm between both arms of the Mach-Zehnder

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