Abstract

The integration of germanium (Ge)-rich active devices in photonic integrated circuits is challenging due to the lattice mismatch between silicon (Si) and Ge. A new Ge-rich silicon-germanium (SiGe) waveguide on graded buffer was investigated as a platform for integrated photonic circuits. At a wavelength of 1550 nm, low loss bends with radii as low as 12 µm and Multimode Interferometer beam splitter based on Ge-rich SiGe waveguide on graded buffer were designed, fabricated and characterized. A Mach Zehnder interferometer exhibiting a contrast of more than 10 dB has been demonstrated.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (5)

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, “Monolithically integrated Ge-on-Si active photonics,” Photonics 1(3), 162–197 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, D. Feng, J. Lexau, J. F. Buckwalter, H. D. Thacker, F. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, S. S. Djordjevic, J. H. Lee, S. Lin, H. Liang, A. Abed, R. Shafiiha, K. Raj, R. Ho, M. Asghari, and J. E. Cunningham, “A low-power, high-speed, 9-channel germanium-silicon electro-absorption modulator array integrated with digital CMOS driver and wavelength multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12289–12295 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

Abed, A.

Absil, P.

Akiyama, S.

Amberg, P.

Asghari, M.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Boeuf, F.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogris, A.

Bouville, D.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brun, M.

Buckwalter, J. F.

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cassan, E.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, E.

Chen, H. T.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cherchi, M.

Chrastina, D.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozat, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

De Coster, J.

De Heyn, P.

Demeester, P.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, S. S.

Edmond, S.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ettabib, M. A.

Fédéli, J.-M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

Frigerio, J.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gollhofer, M.

Groen, F. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Halbout, J. M.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hammani, K.

Harjanne, M.

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Ho, R.

Hu, Y.

Ikonic, Z.

Isella, G.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iyer, S. S.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapsalis, A.

Kapulainen, M.

Kasper, E.

Kawachi, M.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kelsall, R. W.

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kitoh, T.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koerner, R.

Kostecki, K.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labeye, P.

Le Roux, X.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leadley, D. R.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lepage, G.

Lever, L.

Lexau, J.

Liang, H.

Lin, S.

Littlejohns, C. G.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, “Monolithically integrated Ge-on-Si active photonics,” Photonics 1(3), 162–197 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Luo, Y.

Mallinson, C. F.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marko, I. P.

Marris-Morini, D.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metaal, E. G.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myronov, M.

Nedeljkovic, M.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicoletti, S.

Oehme, M.

Oei, Y. S.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Owens, N.

Patel, N.

Pesarcik, S. F.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

Pogossian, S. P.

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Popovic, K.

Raj, K.

Reed, G. T.

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Roelkens, G.

Romagnoli, M.

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roufied, M. S.

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rouifed, M. S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouifed, M.-S.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

Schulze, J.

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

Smit, M. K.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Spiekman, L. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, S. J.

Syvridis, D.

Takato, N.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H. D.

Treyz, G. V.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vescan, L.

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

Virot, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vonsovici, A.

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

Watts, J. F.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widmann, D.

Yasu, M.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, “Bending loss reduction in silica-based waveguides by using lateral offsets,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 555–562 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ylinen, S.

Zheng, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “High-confinement SiGe low-loss waveguides for Si-based optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1440 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, S. Cecchi, M. S. Roufied, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Electro-refractive effect in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon germanium optical waveguides with 0.5 dB/cm losses for singlemode fibre optic systems,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 159–160 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, P. Demeester, and M. K. Smit, “Ultrasmall waveguide bends: the corner mirrors of the future?” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 142(1), 61–65 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M.-S. Rouifed, D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. Le Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “Advances toward Ge/SiGe quantum-well waveguide modulators at 1.3μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 33 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated, ultra-low energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

R. Koerner, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, K. Kostecki, S. Bechler, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electrically pumped lasing from Ge Fabry-Perot resonators on Si,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14815–14822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hammani, M. A. Ettabib, A. Bogris, A. Kapsalis, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Optical properties of silicon germanium waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16690–16701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cherchi, S. Ylinen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and T. Aalto, “Dramatic size reduction of waveguide bends on a micron-scale silicon photonic platform,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17814–17823 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, D. Feng, J. Lexau, J. F. Buckwalter, H. D. Thacker, F. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, S. S. Djordjevic, J. H. Lee, S. Lin, H. Liang, A. Abed, R. Shafiiha, K. Raj, R. Ho, M. Asghari, and J. E. Cunningham, “A low-power, high-speed, 9-channel germanium-silicon electro-absorption modulator array integrated with digital CMOS driver and wavelength multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12289–12295 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics (1)

J. Liu, “Monolithically integrated Ge-on-Si active photonics,” Photonics 1(3), 162–197 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic cross section of the slightly-etched Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguide on graded buffer, (b) corresponding optical mode (TE-polarization), (c) schematic cross section of the deeply-etched Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguide, (d) corresponding optical mode (TE-polarization), (e) optical microscope view of the transition between a slightly-etched and a deeply-etched waveguide to increase the light confinement at the bends (deeply-etched regions appear darker), (f) numerical simulation of light propagation (TE polarization) along the transition, calculated by eigenmode expansion solver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical microscope view of the bending test structure (b), zoom of the 90° bend and its deeply-etched region, (c) Measured losses of the 90° bends as function of bend radius
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 MMI Beam splitter: (a) Schematic view of the device, (b) Propagation simulation of the electric field component (waveguide cross section is in Fig. 1(b))
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Asymmetric Mach Zehnder: (a) general schematic view, (b) optical microscope view of the MMI, (c) optical microscope view of the waveguide separation after the MMI, (d) Optical transmission as a function of the wavelength. The free spectral range of 24.4 nm is related to the length difference of 24 µm between both arms of the Mach-Zehnder

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