Abstract

To apply in wearable electronics, we propose a stretchable photo sensor that detects an inversely changed resistance by varying light intensity, which is stably operated up to 25% axial strain. Especially, the stretchabity of the proposed photo sensor is achived by using a uniform ridged substrate made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The proposed device is composed of a thin film of perylene/graphene composite, which is sandwiched between bottom and top indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes fabricated through electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) technique. The electrical conductivity of perylene is improved by blending graphene with it. The resistance of the proposed photo sensor changes from 108 MΩ to 87 MΩ within the light intensity range of 0 to 400 lux, respectively. Furthermore, the flexibility is verified through a bendability test from 16 mm down to 0 mm and a bending endurance test for more than 1000 cycles. Uniform and smooth deposition of the active layer is tested through surface morphology characterization.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. L. Hammock, A. Chortos, B. C. K. Tee, J. B. H. Tok, and Z. Bao, “25th Anniversary Article: The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress,” Adv. Mater. 25(42), 5997–6038 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. H. Chae, W. J. Yu, J. J. Bae, D. L. Duong, D. Perello, H. Y. Jeong, Q. H. Ta, T. H. Ly, Q. A. Vu, M. Yun, X. Duan, and Y. H. Lee, “Transferred wrinkled Al2O3 for highly stretchable and transparent graphene-carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 403–409 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Ali, J. Bae, and C. H. Lee, “Design of versatile printed organic resistor based on resistivity (ρ) control,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1499–1506 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Glowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Someya, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Kato, H. Kawaguchi, and T. Sakurai, “A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic field-effect transistors for artificial skin applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(27), 9966–9970 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. J. Lipomi, B. C. K. Tee, M. Vosgueritchian, and Z. Bao, “Stretchable organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1771–1775 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. M. Gaikwad, A. M. Zamarayeva, J. Rousseau, H. Chu, I. Derin, and D. A. Steingart, “Highly stretchable alkaline batteries based on an embedded conductive fabric,” Adv. Mater. 24(37), 5071–5076 (2012).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S.-K. Chae, J.-H. Ryoo, and S.-H. Lee, “Thin and large free-standing PDMS membrane by using polystyrene petri dish,” Biochip J. 6(2), 184–190 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Jeong, S. Kim, J. Cho, and Y. Hong, “Stable stretchable silver electrode directly deposited on wavy elastomeric substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1284–1286 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Berdichevsky, J. Khandurina, A. Guttman, and Y.-H. Lo, “UV/ozone modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2–3), 402–408 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. A. Vickers, M. M. Caulum, and C. S. Henry, “Generation of hydrophilic poly(dimethylsiloxane) for high-performance microchip electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 78(21), 7446–7452 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. B. H. Chua, H. T. Ng, and S. F. Y. Li, “Spontaneous formation of complex and ordered structures on oxygen-plasma-treated elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 721–723 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Mandlik, S. P. Lacour, J. W. Li, S. Y. Chou, and S. Wagner, “Fully elastic interconnects on nanopatterned elastomeric substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(8), 650–652 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. P. Robinson, I. Minev, I. M. Graz, and S. P. Lacour, “Microstructured silicone substrate for printable and stretchable metallic films,” Langmuir 27(8), 4279–4284 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. Pace, A. Grimoldi, D. Natali, M. Sampietro, J. E. Coughlin, G. C. Bazan, and M. Caironi, “All-organic and fully-printed semitransparent photodetectors based on narrow bandgap conjugated molecules,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6773–6777 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. K. Liu, M. Sakurai, and M. Aono, “ZnO-based ultraviolet photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(9), 8604–8634 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. K. Renshaw, X. Xu, and S. R. Forrest, “A monolithically integrated organic photodetector and thin film transistor,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 175–178 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. A. Hussain, A. R. Pal, and D. S. Patil, “High photosensitivity with enhanced photoelectrical contribution in hybrid nanocomposite flexible UV photodetector,” Org. Electron. 15(9), 2107–2115 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Schmidt-Mende, A. Fechtenkötter, K. Müllen, E. Moons, R. H. Friend, and J. D. MacKenzie, “Self-organized discotic liquid crystals for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Science 293(5532), 1119–1122 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. E. R. Draper, J. J. Walsh, T. O. McDonald, M. A. Zwijnenburg, P. J. Cameron, A. J. Cowan, and D. J. Adams, “Air-stable photoconductive films formed from perylene bisimide gelators,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(28), 5570–5575 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Niu, C. Wang, X. D. Bai, and Y. Hhuang, “High photoconductivity properties of perylene polyimide containing triarylamine unit,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 39(12), 4053–4056 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. G. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Z. Li, R. Ye, R. Feng, Y. Kang, X. Zhu, J. M. Tour, and Z. Fang, “Graphene quantum dots doping of MoS2 monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5235–5240 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Kang, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Bao, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6467–6471 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. I. Hayati, A. I. Bailey, and T. F. Tadros, “Mechanism of stable jet formation in electrohydro-dynamic atomization,” Nature 319(6048), 41–43 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, Y. H. Doh, S. Shin, and N. P. Kobayashi, “Organic non-volatile memory cell based on resistive elements through electro-hydrodynamic technique,” Org. Electron. 17(1), 121–128 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, and Y. H. Doh, “Flexible and passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 220(1), 634–640 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. H. Oh, B. G. Kim, S. J. Yun, M. Maheswara, K. Kim, and J. Y. Do, “The synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric perylene derivatives and their optical properties,” Dyes Pigments 85(1–2), 37–42 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Ali, J. Bae, and C. H. Lee, “Design of versatile printed organic resistor based on resistivity (ρ) control,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1499–1506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Ye, R. Feng, Y. Kang, X. Zhu, J. M. Tour, and Z. Fang, “Graphene quantum dots doping of MoS2 monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5235–5240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, Y. H. Doh, S. Shin, and N. P. Kobayashi, “Organic non-volatile memory cell based on resistive elements through electro-hydrodynamic technique,” Org. Electron. 17(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, and Y. H. Doh, “Flexible and passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 220(1), 634–640 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Y. Kang, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Bao, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6467–6471 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. G. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pace, A. Grimoldi, D. Natali, M. Sampietro, J. E. Coughlin, G. C. Bazan, and M. Caironi, “All-organic and fully-printed semitransparent photodetectors based on narrow bandgap conjugated molecules,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6773–6777 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Hussain, A. R. Pal, and D. S. Patil, “High photosensitivity with enhanced photoelectrical contribution in hybrid nanocomposite flexible UV photodetector,” Org. Electron. 15(9), 2107–2115 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Draper, J. J. Walsh, T. O. McDonald, M. A. Zwijnenburg, P. J. Cameron, A. J. Cowan, and D. J. Adams, “Air-stable photoconductive films formed from perylene bisimide gelators,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(28), 5570–5575 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Glowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. L. Hammock, A. Chortos, B. C. K. Tee, J. B. H. Tok, and Z. Bao, “25th Anniversary Article: The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress,” Adv. Mater. 25(42), 5997–6038 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chae, W. J. Yu, J. J. Bae, D. L. Duong, D. Perello, H. Y. Jeong, Q. H. Ta, T. H. Ly, Q. A. Vu, M. Yun, X. Duan, and Y. H. Lee, “Transferred wrinkled Al2O3 for highly stretchable and transparent graphene-carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 403–409 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Guo, Y. Yu, Z. Xie, X. Liu, X. Zhou, Y. Gao, Z. Liu, F. Zhou, Y. Yang, and Z. Zheng, “Matrix-assisted catalytic printing for the fabrication of multiscale, flexible, foldable, and stretchable metal conductors,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3343–3350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S.-K. Chae, J.-H. Ryoo, and S.-H. Lee, “Thin and large free-standing PDMS membrane by using polystyrene petri dish,” Biochip J. 6(2), 184–190 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Gaikwad, A. M. Zamarayeva, J. Rousseau, H. Chu, I. Derin, and D. A. Steingart, “Highly stretchable alkaline batteries based on an embedded conductive fabric,” Adv. Mater. 24(37), 5071–5076 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

D. J. Lipomi, B. C. K. Tee, M. Vosgueritchian, and Z. Bao, “Stretchable organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1771–1775 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Robinson, I. Minev, I. M. Graz, and S. P. Lacour, “Microstructured silicone substrate for printable and stretchable metallic films,” Langmuir 27(8), 4279–4284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

S. H. Oh, B. G. Kim, S. J. Yun, M. Maheswara, K. Kim, and J. Y. Do, “The synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric perylene derivatives and their optical properties,” Dyes Pigments 85(1–2), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, M. Sakurai, and M. Aono, “ZnO-based ultraviolet photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(9), 8604–8634 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Renshaw, X. Xu, and S. R. Forrest, “A monolithically integrated organic photodetector and thin film transistor,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 175–178 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sekitani and T. Someya, “Stretchable, large-area organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(20), 2228–2246 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Jeong, S. Kim, J. Cho, and Y. Hong, “Stable stretchable silver electrode directly deposited on wavy elastomeric substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1284–1286 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. A. Vickers, M. M. Caulum, and C. S. Henry, “Generation of hydrophilic poly(dimethylsiloxane) for high-performance microchip electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 78(21), 7446–7452 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mandlik, S. P. Lacour, J. W. Li, S. Y. Chou, and S. Wagner, “Fully elastic interconnects on nanopatterned elastomeric substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(8), 650–652 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

H. Niu, C. Wang, X. D. Bai, and Y. Hhuang, “High photoconductivity properties of perylene polyimide containing triarylamine unit,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 39(12), 4053–4056 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Berdichevsky, J. Khandurina, A. Guttman, and Y.-H. Lo, “UV/ozone modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2–3), 402–408 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Someya, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Kato, H. Kawaguchi, and T. Sakurai, “A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic field-effect transistors for artificial skin applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(27), 9966–9970 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Schmidt-Mende, A. Fechtenkötter, K. Müllen, E. Moons, R. H. Friend, and J. D. MacKenzie, “Self-organized discotic liquid crystals for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Science 293(5532), 1119–1122 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. B. H. Chua, H. T. Ng, and S. F. Y. Li, “Spontaneous formation of complex and ordered structures on oxygen-plasma-treated elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 721–723 (2000).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

I. Hayati, A. I. Bailey, and T. F. Tadros, “Mechanism of stable jet formation in electrohydro-dynamic atomization,” Nature 319(6048), 41–43 (1986).
[Crossref]

Aazou, S.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Glowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. J.

E. R. Draper, J. J. Walsh, T. O. McDonald, M. A. Zwijnenburg, P. J. Cameron, A. J. Cowan, and D. J. Adams, “Air-stable photoconductive films formed from perylene bisimide gelators,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(28), 5570–5575 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. G. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Bao, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6467–6471 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, S.

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, Y. H. Doh, S. Shin, and N. P. Kobayashi, “Organic non-volatile memory cell based on resistive elements through electro-hydrodynamic technique,” Org. Electron. 17(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, J. Bae, and C. H. Lee, “Design of versatile printed organic resistor based on resistivity (ρ) control,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1499–1506 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, and Y. H. Doh, “Flexible and passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 220(1), 634–640 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aono, M.

K. Liu, M. Sakurai, and M. Aono, “ZnO-based ultraviolet photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(9), 8604–8634 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, J.

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, Y. H. Doh, S. Shin, and N. P. Kobayashi, “Organic non-volatile memory cell based on resistive elements through electro-hydrodynamic technique,” Org. Electron. 17(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, J. Bae, and C. H. Lee, “Design of versatile printed organic resistor based on resistivity (ρ) control,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1499–1506 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, and Y. H. Doh, “Flexible and passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 220(1), 634–640 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. J.

S. H. Chae, W. J. Yu, J. J. Bae, D. L. Duong, D. Perello, H. Y. Jeong, Q. H. Ta, T. H. Ly, Q. A. Vu, M. Yun, X. Duan, and Y. H. Lee, “Transferred wrinkled Al2O3 for highly stretchable and transparent graphene-carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 403–409 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, D.-H.

E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-Y.

E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bai, X. D.

H. Niu, C. Wang, X. D. Bai, and Y. Hhuang, “High photoconductivity properties of perylene polyimide containing triarylamine unit,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 39(12), 4053–4056 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bailey, A. I.

I. Hayati, A. I. Bailey, and T. F. Tadros, “Mechanism of stable jet formation in electrohydro-dynamic atomization,” Nature 319(6048), 41–43 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bao, Y.

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Kettlgruber, G.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Glowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keum, H.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khandurina, J.

Y. Berdichevsky, J. Khandurina, A. Guttman, and Y.-H. Lo, “UV/ozone modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2–3), 402–408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. G.

S. H. Oh, B. G. Kim, S. J. Yun, M. Maheswara, K. Kim, and J. Y. Do, “The synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric perylene derivatives and their optical properties,” Dyes Pigments 85(1–2), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. H.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B.-J.

E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. G.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Oh, B. G. Kim, S. J. Yun, M. Maheswara, K. Kim, and J. Y. Do, “The synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric perylene derivatives and their optical properties,” Dyes Pigments 85(1–2), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, R. H.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

J. Jeong, S. Kim, J. Cho, and Y. Hong, “Stable stretchable silver electrode directly deposited on wavy elastomeric substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1284–1286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T. I.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N. P.

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, Y. H. Doh, S. Shin, and N. P. Kobayashi, “Organic non-volatile memory cell based on resistive elements through electro-hydrodynamic technique,” Org. Electron. 17(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lacour, S. P.

A. P. Robinson, I. Minev, I. M. Graz, and S. P. Lacour, “Microstructured silicone substrate for printable and stretchable metallic films,” Langmuir 27(8), 4279–4284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mandlik, S. P. Lacour, J. W. Li, S. Y. Chou, and S. Wagner, “Fully elastic interconnects on nanopatterned elastomeric substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(8), 650–652 (2006).
[Crossref]

Le, A. P.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. H.

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, and Y. H. Doh, “Flexible and passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 220(1), 634–640 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, J. Bae, K. H. Choi, C. H. Lee, Y. H. Doh, S. Shin, and N. P. Kobayashi, “Organic non-volatile memory cell based on resistive elements through electro-hydrodynamic technique,” Org. Electron. 17(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, J. Bae, and C. H. Lee, “Design of versatile printed organic resistor based on resistivity (ρ) control,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1499–1506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.-J.

E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

S.-K. Chae, J.-H. Ryoo, and S.-H. Lee, “Thin and large free-standing PDMS membrane by using polystyrene petri dish,” Biochip J. 6(2), 184–190 (2012).
[Crossref]

E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

S. H. Chae, W. J. Yu, J. J. Bae, D. L. Duong, D. Perello, H. Y. Jeong, Q. H. Ta, T. H. Ly, Q. A. Vu, M. Yun, X. Duan, and Y. H. Lee, “Transferred wrinkled Al2O3 for highly stretchable and transparent graphene-carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 403–409 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J. W.

P. Mandlik, S. P. Lacour, J. W. Li, S. Y. Chou, and S. Wagner, “Fully elastic interconnects on nanopatterned elastomeric substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(8), 650–652 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S. F. Y.

D. B. H. Chua, H. T. Ng, and S. F. Y. Li, “Spontaneous formation of complex and ordered structures on oxygen-plasma-treated elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 721–723 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, R. Ye, R. Feng, Y. Kang, X. Zhu, J. M. Tour, and Z. Fang, “Graphene quantum dots doping of MoS2 monolayers,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5235–5240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipomi, D. J.

D. J. Lipomi, B. C. K. Tee, M. Vosgueritchian, and Z. Bao, “Stretchable organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1771–1775 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, M. Sakurai, and M. Aono, “ZnO-based ultraviolet photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel) 10(9), 8604–8634 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, P.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

R. Guo, Y. Yu, Z. Xie, X. Liu, X. Zhou, Y. Gao, Z. Liu, F. Zhou, Y. Yang, and Z. Zheng, “Matrix-assisted catalytic printing for the fabrication of multiscale, flexible, foldable, and stretchable metal conductors,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3343–3350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Y. Kang, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Bao, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6467–6471 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. G. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Guo, Y. Yu, Z. Xie, X. Liu, X. Zhou, Y. Gao, Z. Liu, F. Zhou, Y. Yang, and Z. Zheng, “Matrix-assisted catalytic printing for the fabrication of multiscale, flexible, foldable, and stretchable metal conductors,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3343–3350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, Y.-H.

Y. Berdichevsky, J. Khandurina, A. Guttman, and Y.-H. Lo, “UV/ozone modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2–3), 402–408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lou, J.

Y. Kang, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Bao, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6467–6471 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, N.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ly, T. H.

S. H. Chae, W. J. Yu, J. J. Bae, D. L. Duong, D. Perello, H. Y. Jeong, Q. H. Ta, T. H. Ly, Q. A. Vu, M. Yun, X. Duan, and Y. H. Lee, “Transferred wrinkled Al2O3 for highly stretchable and transparent graphene-carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 403–409 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacKenzie, J. D.

L. Schmidt-Mende, A. Fechtenkötter, K. Müllen, E. Moons, R. H. Friend, and J. D. MacKenzie, “Self-organized discotic liquid crystals for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Science 293(5532), 1119–1122 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maheswara, M.

S. H. Oh, B. G. Kim, S. J. Yun, M. Maheswara, K. Kim, and J. Y. Do, “The synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric perylene derivatives and their optical properties,” Dyes Pigments 85(1–2), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Major, Z.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Glowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[Crossref]

Malyarchuk, V.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandlik, P.

P. Mandlik, S. P. Lacour, J. W. Li, S. Y. Chou, and S. Wagner, “Fully elastic interconnects on nanopatterned elastomeric substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(8), 650–652 (2006).
[Crossref]

McCormick, M.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonald, T. O.

E. R. Draper, J. J. Walsh, T. O. McDonald, M. A. Zwijnenburg, P. J. Cameron, A. J. Cowan, and D. J. Adams, “Air-stable photoconductive films formed from perylene bisimide gelators,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(28), 5570–5575 (2014).
[Crossref]

Minev, I.

A. P. Robinson, I. Minev, I. M. Graz, and S. P. Lacour, “Microstructured silicone substrate for printable and stretchable metallic films,” Langmuir 27(8), 4279–4284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miron, M. C.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Glowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moons, E.

L. Schmidt-Mende, A. Fechtenkötter, K. Müllen, E. Moons, R. H. Friend, and J. D. MacKenzie, “Self-organized discotic liquid crystals for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Science 293(5532), 1119–1122 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müllen, K.

L. Schmidt-Mende, A. Fechtenkötter, K. Müllen, E. Moons, R. H. Friend, and J. D. MacKenzie, “Self-organized discotic liquid crystals for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Science 293(5532), 1119–1122 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Najmaei, S.

Y. Kang, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Bao, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6467–6471 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natali, D.

G. Pace, A. Grimoldi, D. Natali, M. Sampietro, J. E. Coughlin, G. C. Bazan, and M. Caironi, “All-organic and fully-printed semitransparent photodetectors based on narrow bandgap conjugated molecules,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6773–6777 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, H. T.

D. B. H. Chua, H. T. Ng, and S. F. Y. Li, “Spontaneous formation of complex and ordered structures on oxygen-plasma-treated elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 721–723 (2000).
[Crossref]

Niu, H.

H. Niu, C. Wang, X. D. Bai, and Y. Hhuang, “High photoconductivity properties of perylene polyimide containing triarylamine unit,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 39(12), 4053–4056 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

Y. Kang, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Bao, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and Z. Fang, “Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6467–6471 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. G. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. H.

S. H. Oh, B. G. Kim, S. J. Yun, M. Maheswara, K. Kim, and J. Y. Do, “The synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric perylene derivatives and their optical properties,” Dyes Pigments 85(1–2), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Omenetto, F. G.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pace, G.

G. Pace, A. Grimoldi, D. Natali, M. Sampietro, J. E. Coughlin, G. C. Bazan, and M. Caironi, “All-organic and fully-printed semitransparent photodetectors based on narrow bandgap conjugated molecules,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6773–6777 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pak, J. J.

E.-J. Lee, D.-H. Baek, J.-Y. Baek, B.-J. Kim, J. Choi, J. J. Pak, and S.-H. Lee, “PDMS- and silver-ball-based flexible multichannel surface electrode: fabrication and application in nerve conduction study on patients with diabetic polyneuropathy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(6), 625–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pal, A. R.

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Adv. Mater. (8)

T. Sekitani and T. Someya, “Stretchable, large-area organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(20), 2228–2246 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Hammock, A. Chortos, B. C. K. Tee, J. B. H. Tok, and Z. Bao, “25th Anniversary Article: The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress,” Adv. Mater. 25(42), 5997–6038 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Electrical and photo conductance by mixing ratios of perylene/graphene composite. (b) PDMS substrate with the uniform ridges.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagram of the EHD system. (b) Dripping mode. (c) Unstable jet mode. (d) Stable cone jet mode. (e) Multi jets mode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Layout diagram of the proposed stretchable photo sensor. (b) Fabrication steps of the device, 1. ITO is deposited on the PDMS substrate to make bottom electrode, 2. perylene/graphene composite is deposited for active layer, 3. top electrode of ITO. (c) Fabricated device, Ag paste is applied on both sides to make contacts.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Experimental setup to measure stretchability. (b) Variation of resistance by strain percentage. (c) Stretched photo sensors at 0%, 25%, and 50%. (d) Resistance of the photo sensor along light intensity measured as inset experimental setup.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Setup diagram of the incident light analysis. (b) Resistance vs incident light curve of the stretchable light sensor to different light angles.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Resistance varied by bending diameter. (b) Bending endurance test (resistance vs bending cycles).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical property of the active layer (the graphene/perylene film) analyzed through UV/Vis Spectroscopy, (a) absorbance of PDMS and ITO, (b) transmittance of PDMS and ITO, (c) Absorbance of the device, and (d) transmittance of the device.

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