Abstract

Optical rectification with tilted pulse fronts in lithium niobate crystals is one of the most promising methods to generate terahertz (THz) radiation. In order to achieve higher optical-to-THz energy efficiency, it is necessary to cryogenically cool the crystal not only to decrease the linear phonon absorption for the generated THz wave but also to lengthen the effective interaction length between infrared pump pulses and THz waves. However, the refractive index of lithium niobate crystal at lower temperature is not the same as that at room temperature, resulting in the necessity to re-optimize or even re-build the tilted pulse front setup. Here, we performed a temperature dependent measurement of refractive index and absorption coefficient on a 6.0 mol% MgO-doped congruent lithium niobate wafer by using a THz time-domain spectrometer (THz-TDS). When the crystal temperature was decreased from 300 K to 50 K, the refractive index of the crystal in the extraordinary polarization decreased from 5.05 to 4.88 at 0.4 THz, resulting in ~1° change for the tilt angle inside the lithium niobate crystal. The angle of incidence on the grating for the tilted pulse front setup at 1030 nm with demagnification factor of −0.5 needs to be changed by 3°. The absorption coefficient decreased by 60% at 0.4 THz. These results are crucial for designing an optimum tilted pulse front setup based on lithium niobate crystals.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (4)

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Liang, S. Wang, X. Tao, and T. Dekorsy, “Temperature dependence of free carriers and optical phonons in LiInSe2 in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 92(14), 144303 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

2013 (3)

2011 (4)

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear optics and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123505 (2005).

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

U. T. Schwarz and M. Maier, “Frequency dependence of phonon-polariton damping in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(9), 5074–5077 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[Crossref]

Agranat, M. B.

Ahr, F.

Almási, G.

Arie, A.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ashitkov, S. I.

Balogh, E.

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baraniuk, R. G.

Calendron, A.-L.

Çankaya, H.

Carbajo, S.

Cirmi, G.

Coutaz, J. L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[Crossref]

Coutaz, J.-L.

Dekorsy, T.

Q. Liang, S. Wang, X. Tao, and T. Dekorsy, “Temperature dependence of free carriers and optical phonons in LiInSe2 in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 92(14), 144303 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dombi, P.

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dorney, T. D.

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38(2), 409–415 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dwayne Miller, R. J.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallahi, A.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Wong, A. Fallahi, and F. X. Kärtner, “Compact electron acceleration and bunch compression in THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9792–9806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farkas, G.

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fiebig, M.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Field, R. W.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, S.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortov, V. E.

Fülöp, J. A.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Toth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Galun, E.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38(2), 409–415 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gayer, O.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Granados, E.

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajdara, I.

M. Unferdorben, Z. Szaller, I. Hajdara, J. Hebling, and L. Pálfalvi, “Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Congruent and Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate in the Terahertz Range,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, (in press).

Hauri, C. P.

Hebling, J.

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Toth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123505 (2005).

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Unferdorben, Z. Szaller, I. Hajdara, J. Hebling, and L. Pálfalvi, “Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Congruent and Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate in the Terahertz Range,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, (in press).

Hebling, J. Á.

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear optics and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).

Hoffmann, M. C.

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear optics and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).

Hong, K. H.

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, K.-H.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, W. R.

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, W. R. Huang, S. Carbajo, X. Wu, and F. Kärtner, “Limitations to THz generation by optical rectification using tilted pulse fronts,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20239–20251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D. H.

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karsch, S.

Kärtner, F.

Kärtner, F. X.

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy kHz Yb:KYW dual-crystal regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24752–24762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, S. Carbajo, K. Ravi, F. Ahr, G. Cirmi, Y. Zhou, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz generation in lithium niobate driven by Ti:Sapphire laser pulses and its limitations,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5403–5406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Wong, A. Fallahi, and F. X. Kärtner, “Compact electron acceleration and bunch compression in THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9792–9806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keathley, P. D.

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klatt, G.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klingebiel, S.

Kovacs, K.

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kozma, I.

Krausz, F.

Kuhl, J.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123505 (2005).

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liang, Q.

Q. Liang, S. Wang, X. Tao, and T. Dekorsy, “Temperature dependence of free carriers and optical phonons in LiInSe2 in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 92(14), 144303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lombosi, C.

Mährlein, S.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maier, M.

U. T. Schwarz and M. Maier, “Frequency dependence of phonon-polariton damping in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(9), 5074–5077 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

Moriena, G.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mücke, O. D.

Nanni, E. A.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear optics and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).

Ollmann, Z.

Ovchinnikov, A. V.

Pachkin, A.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pálfalvi, L.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Toth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. Hebling, “Towards generation of mJ-level ultrashort THz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15090–15097 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123505 (2005).

M. Unferdorben, Z. Szaller, I. Hajdara, J. Hebling, and L. Pálfalvi, “Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Congruent and Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate in the Terahertz Range,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, (in press).

Péter, Á.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123505 (2005).

Polgár, K.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123505 (2005).

Ravi, K.

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, W. R. Huang, S. Carbajo, X. Wu, and F. Kärtner, “Limitations to THz generation by optical rectification using tilted pulse fronts,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20239–20251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, S. Carbajo, K. Ravi, F. Ahr, G. Cirmi, Y. Zhou, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz generation in lithium niobate driven by Ti:Sapphire laser pulses and its limitations,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5403–5406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacks, Z.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

U. T. Schwarz and M. Maier, “Frequency dependence of phonon-polariton damping in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(9), 5074–5077 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sell, A.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Skrobol, C.

Szaller, Z.

M. Unferdorben, Z. Szaller, I. Hajdara, J. Hebling, and L. Pálfalvi, “Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Congruent and Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate in the Terahertz Range,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, (in press).

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, X.

Q. Liang, S. Wang, X. Tao, and T. Dekorsy, “Temperature dependence of free carriers and optical phonons in LiInSe2 in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 92(14), 144303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tosa, V.

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toth, G.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Toth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Unferdorben, M.

M. Unferdorben, Z. Szaller, I. Hajdara, J. Hebling, and L. Pálfalvi, “Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Congruent and Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate in the Terahertz Range,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, (in press).

Varju, K.

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vicario, C.

Wang, S.

Q. Liang, S. Wang, X. Tao, and T. Dekorsy, “Temperature dependence of free carriers and optical phonons in LiInSe2 in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 92(14), 144303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wong, L. J.

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Wong, A. Fallahi, and F. X. Kärtner, “Compact electron acceleration and bunch compression in THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9792–9806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

Yeh, K.-L.

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear optics and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).

Zapata, L.

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zapata, L. E.

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123505 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-Power THz Generation, THz Nonlinear optics and THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. R. Huang, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, K. Ravi, K. H. Hong, L. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification in stoichiometric and cryo-cooled congruent lithium niobate,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(18), 1486–1493 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pachkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Toth, and J. Hebling, “Evanescent-wave proton postaccelerator driven by intense THz pulse,” Phys. Rev. 17(3), 031301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Balogh, K. Kovacs, P. Dombi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Farkas, J. Hebling, V. Tosa, and K. Varju, “Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Q. Liang, S. Wang, X. Tao, and T. Dekorsy, “Temperature dependence of free carriers and optical phonons in LiInSe2 in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 92(14), 144303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

U. T. Schwarz and M. Maier, “Frequency dependence of phonon-polariton damping in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(9), 5074–5077 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. R. Huang, E. A. Nanni, K. Ravi, K.-H. Hong, A. Fallahi, L. J. Wong, P. D. Keathley, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

http://www.rainbowphotonics.com/prod_dstms.php

http://www.unitedcrystals.com/LiNbO3.html

http://refractiveindex.info/?shelf=main&book=LiNbO3&page=Zelmon-o

M. Unferdorben, Z. Szaller, I. Hajdara, J. Hebling, and L. Pálfalvi, “Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Congruent and Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate in the Terahertz Range,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, (in press).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the transmission measurements of THz waves at different polarizations. (a) At ordinary polarization; and (b) At extraordinary polarization.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) THz temporal waveforms for vacuum reference, extraordinary and ordinary polarization measured at a temperature of 50 K. (b) Temperature dependence of THz temporal waveforms for an extraordinary light.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient for extraordinary polarization (a) and (b); ordinary polarization (c) and (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Temperature dependence of (a) refractive index differences and (b) absorption coefficient differences for extraordinary polarization.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Polynomial fit for extraordinary of the refractive index from 0.3 to 2 THz at 50 K.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Temperature dependence of birefringences in congruent lithium niobate crystal in the THz frequency range.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Temperature dependence of (a) tilt angle in congruent lithium niobate crystal and (b) corresponding incident angle on grating. Pump wavelength: 1030 nm, grating density: 1500 lines/mm; demagnification factor: −0.5.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient for extraordinary and ordinary at 0.4 and 1.6 THz.

Tables Icon

Table 2 A, B, and C coefficients for the refractive index polynomial equation of lithium niobate in extraordinary and ordinary at different temperatures.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v opt gr cosθ= v THz ph n THz ph cosθ= n opt gr
n opt gr = n opt ph λ opt d n opt ph d λ opt
n 2 (ω)= ϕ(ω)c ωd +1 κ 2 (ω)= ln( ρ(ω) [ n 2 (ω)+1 ] 2 4 n 2 (ω) )c ωd α(ω)=2ω κ 2 (ω)/c
n(ν)=A+B ν 2 +C ν 4

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