Abstract

We demonstrate enhanced four-wave mixing using a silicon high contrast grating (HCG) resonator on a SOI (silicon-on-insulator) wafer directly coupled with free space Gaussian beam in surface-normal direction. The measured quality factor for HCG resonator is ~7330. Peak conversion efficiency of −19.5dB is achieved at low pumping power ~900µW. Surface-normal coupling allows for easily and robust alignment system. The very small footprint and high efficiency of our device provide an effective method for wavelength conversion in chip-scale integrated optics.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (2)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

M. Ferrera, D. Duchesne, L. Razzari, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. E. Little, S. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Low power four wave mixing in an integrated, micro-ring resonator with Q = 1.2 million,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14098–14103 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystal,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma and C. Jiang, “Design and analysis of all-optical switches based on fiber parametric devices,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2605–2613 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2819–2821 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1994 (1)

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, “Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1787–1793 (1994).
[Crossref]

Absil, P. P.

Andreani, L. C.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Beats, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Belthangady, C.

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chase, C.

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Cho, P. S.

Chu, S.

Corcoran, B.

Dadap, J.

Du, S.

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duchesne, D.

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Espinola, R.

Ferrera, M.

Foster, M. A.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galli, M.

Gerace, D.

Geraghty, D. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grillet, C.

Gu, T.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hama, Y.

Harris, S. E.

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, P. T.

Hone, J.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

Huang, M.

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. C.

Imai, K.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2819–2821 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishikura, N.

Itabashi, S.

Ito, H.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2819–2821 (2001).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Jiang, C.

J. Ma and C. Jiang, “Design and analysis of all-optical switches based on fiber parametric devices,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2605–2613 (2008).
[Crossref]

Joneckis, L. G.

Karagodsky, V.

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kasaya, K.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, “Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1787–1793 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2819–2821 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kern, J.

Klonidis, D.

Kolchin, P.

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

Kwong, D. L.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Lipson, M.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

Lo, G. Q.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

J. Ma and C. Jiang, “Design and analysis of all-optical switches based on fiber parametric devices,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2605–2613 (2008).
[Crossref]

McMillan, J. F.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNab, S.

Mitomi, O.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, “Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1787–1793 (1994).
[Crossref]

Miyazawa, H.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, “Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1787–1793 (1994).
[Crossref]

Moewe, M.

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monat, C.

Morandotti, R.

Moss, D. J.

Nejabati, R.

O’Faolain, L.

O’Mahony, M. J.

Osgood, R.

Peccianti, M.

Pesala, B.

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrone, N.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Politi, C. T.

Portalupi, S. L.

Razzari, L.

Reardon, C.

Rey, I. H.

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sedgwick, F.

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shikata, J.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2819–2821 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shinkawa, M.

Shoji, T.

Simeonidou, D.

Suzuki, K.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Der Zande, A.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

Watanabe, T.

White, T. P.

Wilson, R. A.

Wong, C. W.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.-X.

Yamada, K.

Yang, W.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yin, G. Y.

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2819–2821 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, “Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1787–1793 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Zhou, M. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-index-contrast gratin (HCG) and its application in optoelectronic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Beats, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystal,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. Van Der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Ma and C. Jiang, “Design and analysis of all-optical switches based on fiber parametric devices,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2605–2613 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrera, D. Duchesne, L. Razzari, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. E. Little, S. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Low power four wave mixing in an integrated, micro-ring resonator with Q = 1.2 million,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14098–14103 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, L. O’Faolain, I. H. Rey, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in photonic crystal waveguides: slow light enhancement and limitations,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4458–4463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, Y. Hama, K. Suzuki, and T. Baba, “Nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal slow light waveguides fabricated using CMOS-compatible process,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22208–22218 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of HCG resonator. In this particular design, resonance is coupled by a surface normal plan wave input with TE polarization. Grating thickness tg, period Λ and duty cycle are important parameters to determine the resonance wavelength and quality factor. (b) Top view of SEM image of gratings within a single fabricated HCG resonator. (c) Measured reflection spectrum for the HCG resonator. Linewidth shows 210pm, indicating Q ~7330. An absolute reflectivity (normalized by gold mirror) of 87% was achieved at the peak indicating a very high coupling efficiency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated resonance mode pattern (intensity): (a) Top view of the resonance inside HCG cavity, excited by Gaussian beam with 10���� spot size. Large mode overlap with the input beam contributes to the easy and efficient coupling (~87%). (b) Side view of the resonance inside one period of the HCG resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the FWM measurement setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Reflection beam spectrum taken from the OSA; −19.5dB conversion efficiency is achieved in this configuration. (b) Conversion efficiency as function of signal power. The slope of the Log-Log plot is nearly 2, indicating the idler signal is generated from FWM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength detuning: (a) Signal detuning with pump fixed at resonance wavelength (1538.9nm). (b) Pump detuning with fixed signal laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Conversion efficiency as a function of signal detuning. Red dots are measurement results. Black dashed line is from numerical simulation using Eq. (3).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C=ρφρφC.
Q= 2π n g t g λ | r 1 r 2 |.
η=|γ P p L ' | 2 F E p 4 F E s 2 F E c 2 .
Δυ=| υ idler υ res |< Δ υ FWHM 2 .

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