Abstract

We demonstrate a new attosecond pulse reconstruction modality which uses an algorithm that is derived from ptychography. In contrast to other methods, energy and delay sampling are not correlated, and as a result, the number of electron spectra to record is considerably smaller. Together with the robust algorithm, this leads to a more precise and fast convergence of the reconstruction.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1, 343–349 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17, 17678–17693 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Hoppe, “Beugung im Inhomogenen Primärstrahlwellenfeld. I. Prinzip einer Phasenmessung von Elektronen-beugungsinterferenzen,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, and A. G. Cullis, “Transmission microscopy without lenses for objects of unlimited size,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 227–231 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Two-dimensional demonstration of Wigner phase-retrieval microscopy in the STEM configuration,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 371–380 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond time-lenses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827–837 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803(R) (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. Spangenberg, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1002–1005 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63, 447–469 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22, 26967–26975 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D. Kane, “Recent Progress Toward Real-Time Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Spangenberg, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1002–1005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22, 26967–26975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1, 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63, 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17, 17678–17693 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, and A. G. Cullis, “Transmission microscopy without lenses for objects of unlimited size,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 227–231 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. Kane, “Recent Progress Toward Real-Time Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond time-lenses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827–837 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Two-dimensional demonstration of Wigner phase-retrieval microscopy in the STEM configuration,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 371–380 (1992).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

W. Hoppe, “Beugung im Inhomogenen Primärstrahlwellenfeld. I. Prinzip einer Phasenmessung von Elektronen-beugungsinterferenzen,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
[Crossref]

Auld, B. A.

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond time-lenses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827–837 (1994).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloom, D. M.

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond time-lenses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827–837 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boge, R.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brügmann, M. H.

D. Spangenberg, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1002–1005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carette, T.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castiglioni, L.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

Chini, M.

Cirelli, C.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22, 26967–26975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1, 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63, 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, and A. G. Cullis, “Transmission microscopy without lenses for objects of unlimited size,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 227–231 (2007).
[Crossref]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

D. Spangenberg, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1002–1005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

Fiess, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17, 17678–17693 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gallmann, L.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1, 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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Kienberger, R.

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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Lezius, M.

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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
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R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
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A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1, 343–349 (2014).
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R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
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P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
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Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005).
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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, and A. G. Cullis, “Transmission microscopy without lenses for objects of unlimited size,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 227–231 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Two-dimensional demonstration of Wigner phase-retrieval microscopy in the STEM configuration,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 371–380 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rohwer, E.

D. Spangenberg, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1002–1005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

Sabbar, M.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22, 26967–26975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroder, H.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scrinizi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Spangenberg, D.

D. Spangenberg, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1002–1005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Staudte, A.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uphues, T.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Weger, M.

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1, 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Wu, Y.

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17, 17678–17693 (2009).
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J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
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Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

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J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature (London) 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London) 414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803(R) (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (4)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, and A. G. Cullis, “Transmission microscopy without lenses for objects of unlimited size,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 227–231 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Two-dimensional demonstration of Wigner phase-retrieval microscopy in the STEM configuration,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 371–380 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrogram, streaking field, XUV amplitude and phase versus time. Theoretical (blue curves) and ePIE reconstructed (red open circles) results. First row: Isolated bandwidth-limited attosecond pulse of 0.24 fs duration. Second row: Same attosecond pulse with a quartic phase of 2 · 10−4 fs4. Third row: Pulse train consisting of nine unchirped pulses each 0.24 fs long. Fourth row: Same pulse train with a quadratic phase of 2 · 10−2 fs2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstruction of pulse with satellite with fixed parameters and different numbers of time delays. Spectrogram, streaking field, XUV amplitude and XUV phase. Theoretical (blue curves) and reconstructed (red open circles) results for a double pulse. First row: N = 401, δτ = 0.05 fs. Second row: N = 201, δτ = 0.1 fs. Third row: N = 51, δτ = 0.4 fs. Fourth row: N = 25, δτ = 0.8 fs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction of pulse with satellite with adapted parameters for different numbers of time delays. Spectrogram, streaking field, XUV amplitude and XUV phase. Theoretical (blue curves) and reconstructed (red open circles) results for a double pulse. First row: N = 401, δτ = 0.05 fs, βE = 0.15. Second row: N = 25, δτ = 0.8 fs, βE = 0.65. Third row: N = 13, δτ = 1.6 fs, βE = 0.85.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction of pulse with satellite with adapted parameters for decreasing coverage of the spectrogram. Spectrogram, streaking field, XUV amplitude and XUV phase. Theoretical (blue curves) and reconstructed (red open circles) results for a double pulse. First row: δτ = 0.8 fs, βE = 0.65. Second row: δτ = 0.4 fs, βE = 0.55. Third row: δτ = 0.2 fs, βE = 0.45. Fourth row: δτ = 0.1 fs, βE = 0.35. Fifth row: δτ = 0.05 fs, βE = 0.25.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of ePIE with PCGAP and LSGPA for the double attosecond pulse. Left column: Simulated and reconstructed spectrograms; Right column: Retrieved time dependent amplitude and phase of the XUV pulse and the streaking field. First top-left panel and the black solid curves: Simulated data. Reconstructed pulses in red circles, blue squares and orange triangles for ePIE, PCGPA and LSGPA. Each reconstruction is after 20000 iterations, resulting in final errors of 1.4 · 10−4, 2.5 · 10−2 and 3.4 · 10−2 for ePIE, PCGPA and LSGPA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between ePIE and PCGPA reconstructions in the presence of noise. The first two rows show the data for SNR = 5. The third and fourth rows the case of SNR= 4 and the last two the case of SNR = 3. The simulated XUV and IR pulses are in black curves. Blue squares and red circles display the PCGPA and ePIE reconstruction results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of reconstruction between PCGPA, LSGPA and ePIE applied to an experimental streaking trace. Top row: Reconstructed spectrograms after 20000 iterations for PCGPA, LSGPA and ePIE. Lower panels: retrieved streaking fields and XUV pulse intensities and phases.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 ePIE parameters for Figs. 1 to 4. Columns 1 to 7 show the figure, row number, number of spectra N, time delay increment δτ, the ePIE parameters βE and βP and the rms error.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( p , τ ) = | d t E ( t ) d ( p + A IR ( t τ ) ) P ( t τ ) e i ( p 2 / 2 + I p ) t | 2
P ( t ) = exp [ i t d t ( p c A IR ( t ) A IR 2 ( t ) 2 ) ]
ξ j , n ( t , τ n ) = E j , n ( t ) P j , n ( t τ n ) .
E j , n + 1 ( t ) = E j , n ( t ) + β E U j , n ( t τ n ) [ ξ j , n ( t , τ n ) ξ j , n ( t , τ n ) ]
U j , n ( t ) = P j , n * ( t ) max { | P j , n ( t ) | 2 }
ξ j , n ( t , τ n ) = E j , n ( t + τ n ) P j , n ( t ) .
P j , n + 1 ( t ) = P j , n ( t ) + β P V j , n ( t + τ n ) [ ξ j , n ( t , τ n ) ξ j , n ( t , τ n ) ]
V j , n ( t ) = E j , n * ( t ) max { | E j , n ( t ) | 2 }
rms = min γ { 1 M N ω , τ | S j ( ω , τ ) γ S ( ω , τ ) | 2 }

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