Abstract

We apply intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulses with field strengths exceeding 2 MV cm−1 at ~1 THz to window and substrate materials commonly used in THz spectroscopy and determine the induced optical birefringence. Materials studied are diamond, sapphire, magnesium oxide (MgO), polymethylpentene (TPX), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), silicon nitride membrane (SiN) and crystalline quartz. We observe a Kerr-effect-type transient birefringence in all samples, except in quartz and Si, where, respectively, a linear electrooptic signal and a response beyond the perturbative regime are found. We extract the nonlinear refractive indices and the electrooptic coefficient (in the case of quartz) of these materials and discuss implications for their use as windows or substrates in THz pump-optical probe spectroscopy.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2014 (2)

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cornet, J. Degert, E. Abraham, and E. Freysz, “THz Kerr effect in gallium phosphide crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(7), 1648–1652 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 796–798 (2013).

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense THz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle THz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by THz pump—THz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of THz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power THz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(8), 1204–1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectores and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1990 (2)

1963 (1)

Abraham, E.

Almasi, G.

Almási, G.

Aoki, H.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker, H. J.

Bandulet, H.-C.

Bartal, B.

Battiato, M.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Beall, J. A.

Blanchard, F.

Blugel, S.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Brandt, N. C.

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cataldo, G.

Cho, G. C.

Cho, H.-M.

Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornet, M.

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Degert, J.

Dekorsy, T.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Doi, A.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle THz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eden, D. D.

Eilers, G.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Faccio, D.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fattinger, C.

Fiebig, M.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Field, R. W.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, S.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freimuth, F.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Freysz, E.

Fujita, H.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fülöp, J. A.

Gallot, G.

Giguère, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of THz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Granados, E.

Grischkowsky, D.

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

Hegmann, F. A.

Hirori, H.

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle THz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M. C.

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by THz pump—THz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power THz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hong, K. H.

Huang, S. W.

Huang, W. R.

Huber, R.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectores and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by THz pump—THz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jewariya, M.

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadoya, Y.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense THz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband THz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karsch, S.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keiding, S.

Kieffer, J.-C.

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of THz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klatt, G.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klingebiel, S.

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectores and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kozma, I.

Krausz, F.

Kuhl, J.

Kurz, H.

Légaré, F.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectores and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lotti, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahrlein, S.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Makise, K.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maldonado, P.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Matsunaga, R.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McAndrew, B.

Mokrousov, Y.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Morandotti, R.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munzenberg, M.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Nagai, M.

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense THz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by THz pump—THz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power THz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niemack, M. D.

Notzold, J.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Nötzold, J.

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband THz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectores and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oppeneer, P. M.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Ozaki, T.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pálfalvi, L.

Pashkin, A.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peccianti, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Planken, P. C. M.

RaduI, I.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of THz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sell, A.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectores and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shalaby, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, G.

Shimano, R.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinokita, K.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirai, M.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugioka, A.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense THz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle THz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tani, S.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of THz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Terai, H.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiess, G. H.

Tiedje, H. F.

Tsuji, N.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uzawa, Y.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Valk, N. C. J.

Vanexter, M.

Wang, Z.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenckebach, T.

Wolf, M.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband THz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wollack, E. J.

Wu, Q.

Yeh, K. L.

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by THz pump—THz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hebling, K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power THz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yeh, K.-L.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zapata, L. E.

Zbarsky, V.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Zhang, X. C.

Zhou, Y.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. Grischkowsky and S. Keiding, “THz time‐domain spectroscopy of high Tc substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 1055–1057 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectores and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband THz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle THz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231105 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz nonlinear spectroscopy of solids,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2, 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. RaduI, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “THz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).

Nat. Photonics (3)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of THz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense THz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mahrlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent THz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by THz pump—THz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 161201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ladder climbing on the anharmonic intermolecular potential in an amino acid microcrystal via an intense monocycle terahertz pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345(6201), 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Y. S. Lee, Principles of THz Science and Technology: Proceedings of the International Conference, Held in Mainz, Germany, June 5–9, 1979. (Springer-Verlag).

A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, G. C. Phillips, J. Waldman, L. P. Bourget, and R. Post, (1989). “Far-Infrared spectroscopic study of diamond films,” MRS Proceedings, 162, 285 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, Inc.).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics. (Academic Press, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the THz-induced optical birefringence setup. Probe pulses are incident on samples with 45° polarization, except for quartz and ZnTe (see figure). Optical components: PM: 90° off-axis parabolic mirror, λ/4: quarter waveplate, WP: Wollaston prism, PD: photodiode. (b) Temporal profile of the THz field generated with the LiNbO3 source (blue) and its Fourier spectrum (inset). By using a calibration method based on power and beam-profile measurements (see main text), we have determined the field scaling factor to be E0 = 2.1 MV cm−1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transient optical birefringence of (a) LDPE, diamond, TPX, SiN, (b) sapphire and MgO induced by the THz pump pulse of Fig. 1(b). For comparison, the squared pump field is also shown (dashed line). Note that signal amplitudes are rescaled for clarity by the scaling factors indicated. Cyan and red solid curves in (b) represent the simulated birefringence signal of MgO and sapphire. The inset shows the peak values of the birefringence signal of diamond (full circles) as a function of pump amplitude along with a parabolic fit.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 THz-pump-induced transient optical birefringence in 10-µm-thick Si at various THz field amplitudes. The dashed line is the square of the THz electric field. The inset shows the signal peak values of the signal as a function of THz peak field. The red line is a guide to the eyes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 THz-pump-induced transient birefringence of a 1-mm thick z-cut quartz window (black curve) along with the simulated signal (green curve, see text). For comparison, the rescaled EO signal from an 8 μm thick ZnTe crystal is also shown (dashed red curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear-optical and third-order nonlinear-optical parameters of the window/substrate materials studied in this work (except quartz).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn(x,t)= n 2 I ΤΗz = n 2 c ε 0 E ΤΗz 2 (x,t)
λ pr 2π Δφ(t)= 0 L d x Δn(x,t+x/ v pr ) = 0 L d x Δn(0,t+βx)
Δn(x,t)= E ΤΗz (x,t),

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