Abstract

We perform a full numerical characterisation of half-open cavity random DFB Raman fibre laser amplifier schemes for WDM transmission in terms of signal power variation, noise and nonlinear impairments, showcasing the excellent potential of this scheme to provide amplification for DWDM transmission with very low gain variation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, D. Pikula, S. Ten, and C. Towery, “Study of EDFA and Raman system transmission reach with 256 Gb/s PM-16QAM signals over three optical fibers with 100 km spans,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17372–17378 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using random DFB fiber laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.
  5. P. Rosa, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DPSK transmission over 360 km SMF-28 fibre using URFL based amplification,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9687–9692 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).
  7. H. A. Fevrier and M. W. Chbat, “Raman amplification technology for bandwidth extension” in The 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEELasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2001), pp. 344–345.
  8. S. B. Papernyi, V.I. Karpov, and W.R.L. Clements, “Third-order cascaded Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Transmission comparison of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification with first and dual order Raman amplification using 10 × 118 Gbit/s DP-QPSK” in Proceedings of ICTON, (IEEE, 2014), paper Tu.C1.7.
  10. J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co- pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Signal power symmetry optimization for optical phase conjugation using Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper NW4A.36.
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.
  15. J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  101(12), 123903 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Popov, S. Sergeyev, and A. T. Friberg, “The impact of pump polarization on the polarization dependence of the Raman gain due to the breaking of a fibre’s circular symmetry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.6(3) (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Alcon-Camas, A. E. El-Taher, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Gain bandwidth optimisation and enhancement in ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplifiers” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper P1.17

2015 (2)

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co- pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Alcon-Camas, M.

M. Alcon-Camas, A. E. El-Taher, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Gain bandwidth optimisation and enhancement in ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplifiers” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper P1.17

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

P. Rosa, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DPSK transmission over 360 km SMF-28 fibre using URFL based amplification,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9687–9692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alcon-Camas, A. E. El-Taher, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Gain bandwidth optimisation and enhancement in ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplifiers” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper P1.17

P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Signal power symmetry optimization for optical phase conjugation using Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper NW4A.36.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

Awadalla, A.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

Babin, S. A.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chbat, M. W.

H. A. Fevrier and M. W. Chbat, “Raman amplification technology for bandwidth extension” in The 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEELasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2001), pp. 344–345.

Churkin, D. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clements, W.R.L.

S. B. Papernyi, V.I. Karpov, and W.R.L. Clements, “Third-order cascaded Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
[Crossref]

Doran, N. J.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Downie, J. D.

Ellis, A. D.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

El-Taher, A. E.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Alcon-Camas, A. E. El-Taher, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Gain bandwidth optimisation and enhancement in ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplifiers” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper P1.17

Fabbri, S.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Fevrier, H. A.

H. A. Fevrier and M. W. Chbat, “Raman amplification technology for bandwidth extension” in The 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEELasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2001), pp. 344–345.

Friberg, A. T.

S. Popov, S. Sergeyev, and A. T. Friberg, “The impact of pump polarization on the polarization dependence of the Raman gain due to the breaking of a fibre’s circular symmetry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.6(3) (2004).
[Crossref]

Giacoumidis, E.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Harper, P.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co- pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rosa, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DPSK transmission over 360 km SMF-28 fibre using URFL based amplification,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9687–9692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Alcon-Camas, A. E. El-Taher, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Gain bandwidth optimisation and enhancement in ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplifiers” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper P1.17

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Transmission comparison of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification with first and dual order Raman amplification using 10 × 118 Gbit/s DP-QPSK” in Proceedings of ICTON, (IEEE, 2014), paper Tu.C1.7.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using random DFB fiber laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.

Hurley, J.

Iqbal, Md.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kanesan, T.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Karpov, V.I.

S. B. Papernyi, V.I. Karpov, and W.R.L. Clements, “Third-order cascaded Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
[Crossref]

Krause, D. J.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laperle, C.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

Le, S. T.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co- pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

McCarthy, M.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Nuño, J.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

O’Sullivan, M.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

Papernyi, S. B.

S. B. Papernyi, V.I. Karpov, and W.R.L. Clements, “Third-order cascaded Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
[Crossref]

Philips, I. D.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

Phillips, I. D.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co- pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using random DFB fiber laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Transmission comparison of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification with first and dual order Raman amplification using 10 × 118 Gbit/s DP-QPSK” in Proceedings of ICTON, (IEEE, 2014), paper Tu.C1.7.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

Pikula, D.

Podivilov, E. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popov, S.

S. Popov, S. Sergeyev, and A. T. Friberg, “The impact of pump polarization on the polarization dependence of the Raman gain due to the breaking of a fibre’s circular symmetry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.6(3) (2004).
[Crossref]

Rizzelli, G.

P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Signal power symmetry optimization for optical phase conjugation using Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper NW4A.36.
[Crossref]

Roberts, K.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rosa, P.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co- pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rosa, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DPSK transmission over 360 km SMF-28 fibre using URFL based amplification,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9687–9692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using random DFB fiber laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Transmission comparison of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification with first and dual order Raman amplification using 10 × 118 Gbit/s DP-QPSK” in Proceedings of ICTON, (IEEE, 2014), paper Tu.C1.7.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Signal power symmetry optimization for optical phase conjugation using Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper NW4A.36.
[Crossref]

Sergeyev, S.

S. Popov, S. Sergeyev, and A. T. Friberg, “The impact of pump polarization on the polarization dependence of the Raman gain due to the breaking of a fibre’s circular symmetry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.6(3) (2004).
[Crossref]

Stephens, M.F.C.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sygletos, S.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Tan, M.

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

M. Tan, P. Rosa, S. T. Le, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co- pumped Raman laser based amplification,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22181–22189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using random DFB fiber laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Transmission comparison of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification with first and dual order Raman amplification using 10 × 118 Gbit/s DP-QPSK” in Proceedings of ICTON, (IEEE, 2014), paper Tu.C1.7.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

Ten, S.

Towery, C.

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

Wu, K.-T.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature Photonics (1)

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,”; Nature Photonics,  4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phot. Tech. Lett. (1)

P. Rosa, M. Tan, S. T. Le, I. D. Philips, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. Sygletos, and P. Harper, “Unrepeatered DP-QPSK transmission over 352.8 km SMF using random DFB fiber laser amplification,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 27(11), 1041–1135 (2015).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

S. Popov, S. Sergeyev, and A. T. Friberg, “The impact of pump polarization on the polarization dependence of the Raman gain due to the breaking of a fibre’s circular symmetry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.6(3) (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Alcon-Camas, A. E. El-Taher, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “Gain bandwidth optimisation and enhancement in ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplifiers” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper P1.17

P. Rosa, G. Rizzelli, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Signal power symmetry optimization for optical phase conjugation using Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper NW4A.36.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, Md. Iqbal, I. D. Phillips, J. Nuño, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and P. Harper, “RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.6.

H. A. Fevrier and M. W. Chbat, “Raman amplification technology for bandwidth extension” in The 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEELasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2001), pp. 344–345.

S. B. Papernyi, V.I. Karpov, and W.R.L. Clements, “Third-order cascaded Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Transmission comparison of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification with first and dual order Raman amplification using 10 × 118 Gbit/s DP-QPSK” in Proceedings of ICTON, (IEEE, 2014), paper Tu.C1.7.

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M.F.C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using random DFB fiber laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic design of random DFB Raman laser amplifier.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalised Raman gain spectrum (left) and attenuation curve (right) in standard SMF silica fibre used in the simulations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Numerical simulations of 0 dBm Ps signal (solid blue) at 1555 nm with initial OSNR of 60 dB, forward propagating noise n S + (dashed blue), primary forward pump P 1 + (solid red), primary backward pump P 1 (solid green), forward lasing P 2 + (dashed red) and backward lasing P 2 (dashed green) power evolution in the 100 km link. In this example forward and backward primary pumps were set to 1.5 W.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Contour plots of received OSNR [dB] (a), SPV [dB] (b) and NPS [rad] (c) for the forward pump powers up to 4 W in the links from 10 – 120 km. Backward pump power was simulated to give 0 dB net gain at the end of the span.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The impact of the reflectivity of the FBG on received OSNR (left) and NPS (right), measured for the pump power configuration that gives the lowest SPV at the given distance with the realistic forward pump power that is below 1.5 W.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The performance of the 25 GHz spaced DWDM transmission with up to 100 channels using random DFB Raman laser amplifier. The received OSNR (a), NPS (b), SPV (c) and received net gain (d) are shown for the best (blue) and the worst (red) performing channels. The span length was 50 km and the launch power per channel was set to −5 dBm.

Equations (3)

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d P S ( ν , z ) d z = ( α ( ν ) + g R ( μ 2 ν ) ( P 2 + ( μ 2 , z ) + P 2 ( μ 2 , z ) ) + g R ( μ 1 , ν ) ( P 1 + ( μ 1 , z ) + P 1 ( μ 1 , z ) ) ) P S ( ν , z )
d n S + ( ν , z ) d z = α S ( ν ) n S + ( ν , z ) + ε ( ν ) n S + g R ( μ 2 ν ) ( P 2 + ( μ 2 , z ) + P 2 ( μ 2 , z ) ) ( n S + ( ν , z ) + 2 h ν Δ ν S ( 1 + 1 e h ( μ 2 ν ) K B T 1 ) ) + g R ( μ 1 ν ) ( P 1 + ( μ 1 , z ) + P 1 ( μ 1 , z ) ) ( n S + ( ν , z ) + 2 h ν Δ ν S ( 1 + 1 e h ( μ 1 ν ) K B T 1 ) )
d n S ( ν , z ) d z = α S ( ν ) n S ( ν , z ) ε ( ν ) n S + g R ( μ 2 ν ) ( P 2 + ( μ 2 , z ) + P 2 ( μ 2 , z ) ) ( n S ( ν , z ) + 2 h ν Δ ν S ( 1 + 1 e h ( μ 2 ν ) K B T 1 ) ) g R ( μ 1 ν ) ( P 1 + ( μ 1 , z ) + P 1 ( μ 1 , z ) ) ( n S ( ν , z ) + 2 h ν Δ ν S ( 1 + 1 e h ( μ 1 ν ) K B T 1 ) )

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