Abstract

Optical networks have been introduced to meet the bandwidth requirement of mega data centers (DC). Most existing approaches are neither scalable to face the massive growth of DCs, nor contention-free enough to provide full bisection bandwidth. To solve this problem, we propose two symmetric network structures: ring-MEMS-ring (RMR) network and MEMS-ring-MEMS (MRM) network based on classical Clos theory. New strategies are introduced to overcome the additional wavelength constraints that did not exist in the traditional Clos network. Two structures that followed the strategies can enable high scalability and nonblocking property simultaneously. The one-to-one correspondence of the RMR and MRM structures to a Clos is verified and the nonblocking conditions are given along with the routing algorithms. Compared to a typical folded-Clos network, both structures are more readily scalable to future mega data centers with 51200 racks while reducing number of long cables significantly. We show that the MRM network is more cost-effective than the RMR network, since the MRM network does not need tunable lasers to achieve nonblocking routing.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

J. Xiao, B. Wu, X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, H. Wen, and L. Zhang, “Scalable data center network architecture with distributed placement of optical switches and racks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6(3), 270–281 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, Y. Wen, T.-S. Chua, and X. L. Li, “Towards scalable systems for big data analytics: a technology tutorial,” IEEE Access 2, 652-687 (2014).

D. Li, H. Z. Zhao, M. W. Xu, and X. M. Fu, “Revisiting the design of mega data centers: considering heterogeneity among containers,” ACM Trans. Netw. 22(5), 1–13 (2014).

2013 (3)

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Tailoring the network to the problem: topology configuration in hybrid electronic packet switched/optical circuit switched interconnects,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exper. 25(17), 2412–2432 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

2010 (1)

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(4), 63–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1953 (1)

C. Clos, “A study of nonblocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32(2), 406–424 (1953).
[Crossref]

Abts, D.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, and D. Abts, “Flattened butterfly: a cost-efficient topology for high-radix networks,” in Proceeding of ISCA 126–137 (2007)
[Crossref]

Al-Fares, M.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(4), 63–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Andersen, D. G.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barker, K.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Bazzaz, H. H.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

Benner, A.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

Chen, L.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Tailoring the network to the problem: topology configuration in hybrid electronic packet switched/optical circuit switched interconnects,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exper. 25(17), 2412–2432 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chua, T.-S.

H. Hu, Y. Wen, T.-S. Chua, and X. L. Li, “Towards scalable systems for big data analytics: a technology tutorial,” IEEE Access 2, 652-687 (2014).

Clos, C.

C. Clos, “A study of nonblocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32(2), 406–424 (1953).
[Crossref]

Dally, W. J.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, and D. Abts, “Flattened butterfly: a cost-efficient topology for high-radix networks,” in Proceeding of ISCA 126–137 (2007)
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

Farrington, N.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

Ford, J. E.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4433–4454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Forencich, A.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, X. M.

D. Li, H. Z. Zhao, M. W. Xu, and X. M. Fu, “Revisiting the design of mega data centers: considering heterogeneity among containers,” ACM Trans. Netw. 22(5), 1–13 (2014).

Greenberg, A.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, J. R.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, Y.

Hayashitani, M.

Hiramatsu, A.

Hoare, R.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Hoisie, A.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, Y. Wen, T.-S. Chua, and X. L. Li, “Towards scalable systems for big data analytics: a technology tutorial,” IEEE Access 2, 652-687 (2014).

Huang, Y.-C.

Ibrahim, S.

Jain, N.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Jones, A.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Kaminsky, M.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kandula, S.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Katrinis, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Tailoring the network to the problem: topology configuration in hybrid electronic packet switched/optical circuit switched interconnects,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exper. 25(17), 2412–2432 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kerbyson, D.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, and D. Abts, “Flattened butterfly: a cost-efficient topology for high-radix networks,” in Proceeding of ISCA 126–137 (2007)
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.-I.

Kozuch, M.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lahiri, P.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

D. Li, H. Z. Zhao, M. W. Xu, and X. M. Fu, “Revisiting the design of mega data centers: considering heterogeneity among containers,” ACM Trans. Netw. 22(5), 1–13 (2014).

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Li, X. L.

H. Hu, Y. Wen, T.-S. Chua, and X. L. Li, “Towards scalable systems for big data analytics: a technology tutorial,” IEEE Access 2, 652-687 (2014).

Loukissas, A.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(4), 63–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maltz, D. A.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Melhem, R.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Mizukoshi, Y.

Nakahara, T.

Ng, T. S. E.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Mahony, D.

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Tailoring the network to the problem: topology configuration in hybrid electronic packet switched/optical circuit switched interconnects,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exper. 25(17), 2412–2432 (2013).
[Crossref]

Papagiannaki, K.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Papen, G.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

Papen, G. C.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patel, P.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pattavina, A.

Porter, G.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

Radhakrishnan, S.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

Rajamony, R.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Rosing, T.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

Ruffini, M.

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Tailoring the network to the problem: topology configuration in hybrid electronic packet switched/optical circuit switched interconnects,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exper. 25(17), 2412–2432 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryan, M.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schenfeld, E.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Segawa, T.

Sengupta, S.

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shao, S.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Solgaard, O.

Strong, R.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

Stunkel, C.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Subramanya, V.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

Sun, P. C.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

Sun, P.-C.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suzaki, Y.

Takahashi, R.

Vahdat, A.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(4), 63–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walker, P.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, H.

Wen, Y.

H. Hu, Y. Wen, T.-S. Chua, and X. L. Li, “Towards scalable systems for big data analytics: a technology tutorial,” IEEE Access 2, 652-687 (2014).

Wu, B.

Wu, M. C.

Xiao, J.

Xu, M. W.

D. Li, H. Z. Zhao, M. W. Xu, and X. M. Fu, “Revisiting the design of mega data centers: considering heterogeneity among containers,” ACM Trans. Netw. 22(5), 1–13 (2014).

Yoshida, Y.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, H. Z.

D. Li, H. Z. Zhao, M. W. Xu, and X. M. Fu, “Revisiting the design of mega data centers: considering heterogeneity among containers,” ACM Trans. Netw. 22(5), 1–13 (2014).

Zhong, S.

Zhu, Z.

ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

D. Li, H. Z. Zhao, M. W. Xu, and X. M. Fu, “Revisiting the design of mega data centers: considering heterogeneity among containers,” ACM Trans. Netw. 22(5), 1–13 (2014).

ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (3)

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(4), 63–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” ACM/SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(4), 327–338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

C. Clos, “A study of nonblocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32(2), 406–424 (1953).
[Crossref]

Commun. ACM (1)

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exper. (1)

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Tailoring the network to the problem: topology configuration in hybrid electronic packet switched/optical circuit switched interconnects,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exper. 25(17), 2412–2432 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

H. Hu, Y. Wen, T.-S. Chua, and X. L. Li, “Towards scalable systems for big data analytics: a technology tutorial,” IEEE Access 2, 652-687 (2014).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. ACM SIGCOMM (1)

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P. C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 43(4), 447-458 (2013).

Other (4)

K. Chen, X. Wen, X. Ma, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, C. Hu, and Q. Dong, “WaveCube: a scalable, fault-tolerant, high-performance optical data center architecture,” in Proc. INFOCOM (INFOCOM, 2015), pp. 1–9.
[Crossref]

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. Jones, D. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melhem, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, “On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference, pp. 16 (2005)
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Hua and S. Zhong, “Scalable and topology adaptive intra-data center networking enabled by wavelength selective switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2014), paper Th2A.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, and D. Abts, “Flattened butterfly: a cost-efficient topology for high-radix networks,” in Proceeding of ISCA 126–137 (2007)
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The ring-based switches: (a) legacy ROADM ring, (b) input-output ring.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Logical Topology of an N × N RMR switching network H 1 ( n , r , m ) .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A 12 × 12 RMR switching network H 1 ( 4 , 3 , 4 ) , where Λ = { λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , λ 4 } .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Implementations of an N × N RMR switching network.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Logical Topology of an N × N MRM switching network H 2 ( n , r , m ) .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Implementation of a 12 × 12 MRM network H 2 ( 3 , 4 , 3 ) .

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