Abstract

We fabricate and characterize waveguides composed of closely spaced and longitudinally oriented silicon ridges etched into silicon-on-insulator wafers. Through both guided mode and bulk measurements, we demonstrate that the patterning of silicon waveguides on such a deeply subwavelength scale is desirable for nonlinear and sensing applications alike. The proposed waveguide geometry simultaneously exhibits comparable propagation losses to similar schemes proposed in literature, an enhanced effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility, and high sensitivity to perturbations in its environment.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (3)

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of SOI micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, M. Puckett, H. Lin, F. Vallini, and Y. Fainman, “Characterizing the effects of free carriers in fully etched, dielectric-clad silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

O. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kim, and N. Peyghambarian, “Silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid directional coupler switch,” Proc. SPIE 8991, 89910Q (2014).

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal Engineering of Second-Harmonic Generation in Single GaP Nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

R. Kotipalli, R. Delamare, O. Poncelet, X. Tang, L. A. Francis, and D. Flandre, “Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide,” EPJ Photovolt. 4, 45107 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

2011 (2)

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11415–11421 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. Zhu, S. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Silicon Photonics: A Review of Recent Literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing with a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Arnold, R. Ramjit, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and I. Teraoka, “MicroParticle photophysics illuminates viral bio-sensing,” Faraday Discuss. 137, 65 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon Photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-Optical Efficient Wavelength Conversion Using Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, E. Fazio, C. Peroz, Y. Chen, V. I. Vlad, and M. Bertolotti, “Strongly enhanced third order nonlinear response of periodically nano-structured Silicon on Insulator (SOI) measured by reflection Z-scan with femtosecond pulses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 1377–1380 (2006).

2003 (1)

Abeysinghe, D.

Alasaarela, T.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anand, S.

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal Engineering of Second-Harmonic Generation in Single GaP Nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sanatinia, M. Swillo, and S. Anand, “Surface Second-Harmonic Generation from Vertical GaP Nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 820–826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

S. Arnold, R. Ramjit, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and I. Teraoka, “MicroParticle photophysics illuminates viral bio-sensing,” Faraday Discuss. 137, 65 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 272–274 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing with a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

Bertolotti, M.

A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, E. Fazio, C. Peroz, Y. Chen, V. I. Vlad, and M. Bertolotti, “Strongly enhanced third order nonlinear response of periodically nano-structured Silicon on Insulator (SOI) measured by reflection Z-scan with femtosecond pulses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 1377–1380 (2006).

Bianco, F.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing with a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casquel, R.

Cazzanelli, M.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

Chen, D.

J. Zhu, S. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, E. Fazio, C. Peroz, Y. Chen, V. I. Vlad, and M. Bertolotti, “Strongly enhanced third order nonlinear response of periodically nano-structured Silicon on Insulator (SOI) measured by reflection Z-scan with femtosecond pulses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 1377–1380 (2006).

Chrostowski, L.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing with a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Boor, J.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing with a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Delamare, R.

R. Kotipalli, R. Delamare, O. Poncelet, X. Tang, L. A. Francis, and D. Flandre, “Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide,” EPJ Photovolt. 4, 45107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dell’Olio, F.

Donzella, V.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eisenschmidt, C.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

R. Sharma, M. Puckett, H. Lin, F. Vallini, and Y. Fainman, “Characterizing the effects of free carriers in fully etched, dielectric-clad silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241104 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. Tan, S. Zamek, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bisability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry Perot Resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(14), 2352–2355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fard, S. T.

Fathpour, S.

Fazio, E.

A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, E. Fazio, C. Peroz, Y. Chen, V. I. Vlad, and M. Bertolotti, “Strongly enhanced third order nonlinear response of periodically nano-structured Silicon on Insulator (SOI) measured by reflection Z-scan with femtosecond pulses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 1377–1380 (2006).

Ferrari, C.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flandre, D.

R. Kotipalli, R. Delamare, O. Poncelet, X. Tang, L. A. Francis, and D. Flandre, “Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide,” EPJ Photovolt. 4, 45107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flueckiger, J.

Foster, M. A.

Francis, L. A.

R. Kotipalli, R. Delamare, O. Poncelet, X. Tang, L. A. Francis, and D. Flandre, “Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide,” EPJ Photovolt. 4, 45107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-Optical Efficient Wavelength Conversion Using Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Galli, M.

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghulinyan, M.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gleeson, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grieco, A.

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Griol, A.

Grist, S. M.

Gunn, L.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, W.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gylfason, K. B.

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heitmann, J.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Herrera, O.

O. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kim, and N. Peyghambarian, “Silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid directional coupler switch,” Proc. SPIE 8991, 89910Q (2014).

Himmelhuber, R.

O. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kim, and N. Peyghambarian, “Silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid directional coupler switch,” Proc. SPIE 8991, 89910Q (2014).

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Holgado, M.

Holler, S.

Honkanen, S.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-Optical Efficient Wavelength Conversion Using Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

Jen, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jussila, H.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karvonen, L.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keng, D.

S. Arnold, R. Ramjit, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and I. Teraoka, “MicroParticle photophysics illuminates viral bio-sensing,” Faraday Discuss. 137, 65 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khorasaninejad, M.

Khoshsima, M.

Kim, K.

O. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kim, and N. Peyghambarian, “Silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid directional coupler switch,” Proc. SPIE 8991, 89910Q (2014).

Kim, R. S.

Kim, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kolchenko, V.

S. Arnold, R. Ramjit, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and I. Teraoka, “MicroParticle photophysics illuminates viral bio-sensing,” Faraday Discuss. 137, 65 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotipalli, R.

R. Kotipalli, R. Delamare, O. Poncelet, X. Tang, L. A. Francis, and D. Flandre, “Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide,” EPJ Photovolt. 4, 45107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kujala, S.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Levy, J. S.

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

R. Sharma, M. Puckett, H. Lin, F. Vallini, and Y. Fainman, “Characterizing the effects of free carriers in fully etched, dielectric-clad silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Luo, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molera, J.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing with a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Monat, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, D.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nezhad, M.

Norwood, R.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ozdemir, S.

J. Zhu, S. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Passaro, V. M.

Pavesi, L.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peroz, C.

A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, E. Fazio, C. Peroz, Y. Chen, V. I. Vlad, and M. Bertolotti, “Strongly enhanced third order nonlinear response of periodically nano-structured Silicon on Insulator (SOI) measured by reflection Z-scan with femtosecond pulses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 1377–1380 (2006).

Petris, A.

A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, E. Fazio, C. Peroz, Y. Chen, V. I. Vlad, and M. Bertolotti, “Strongly enhanced third order nonlinear response of periodically nano-structured Silicon on Insulator (SOI) measured by reflection Z-scan with femtosecond pulses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 1377–1380 (2006).

Pettazzi, F.

A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, E. Fazio, C. Peroz, Y. Chen, V. I. Vlad, and M. Bertolotti, “Strongly enhanced third order nonlinear response of periodically nano-structured Silicon on Insulator (SOI) measured by reflection Z-scan with femtosecond pulses,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 1377–1380 (2006).

Peyghambarian, N.

O. Herrera, R. Himmelhuber, K. Kim, and N. Peyghambarian, “Silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid directional coupler switch,” Proc. SPIE 8991, 89910Q (2014).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pillai, K.

Poncelet, O.

R. Kotipalli, R. Delamare, O. Poncelet, X. Tang, L. A. Francis, and D. Flandre, “Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide,” EPJ Photovolt. 4, 45107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Priolo, F.

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puckett, M.

R. Sharma, M. Puckett, H. Lin, F. Vallini, and Y. Fainman, “Characterizing the effects of free carriers in fully etched, dielectric-clad silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramjit, R.

S. Arnold, R. Ramjit, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and I. Teraoka, “MicroParticle photophysics illuminates viral bio-sensing,” Faraday Discuss. 137, 65 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rönn, J.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruoho, M.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saini, S. S.

Samarelli, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
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Sanatinia, R.

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal Engineering of Second-Harmonic Generation in Single GaP Nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
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R. Sanatinia, M. Swillo, and S. Anand, “Surface Second-Harmonic Generation from Vertical GaP Nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 820–826 (2012).
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Sánchez, B.

Säynätjoki, A.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinearity in ZnO/Al2O3 nanolaminates fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing with a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schilling, J.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmid, A.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schriever, C.

C. Schriever, F. Bianco, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, C. Eisenschmidt, J. de Boor, A. Schmid, J. Heitmann, L. Pavesi, and J. Schilling, “Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Silicon Waveguides: Inhomogeneous Stress and Interfaces,” Adv. Opt.l Mat. 3(1), 129–136 (2015).
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Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, M. Puckett, H. Lin, F. Vallini, and Y. Fainman, “Characterizing the effects of free carriers in fully etched, dielectric-clad silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sherwali, A.

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-Optical Efficient Wavelength Conversion Using Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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Sohlström, H.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Silicon Photonics: A Review of Recent Literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
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R. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
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Sorel, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

Swillam, M. A.

Swillo, M.

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal Engineering of Second-Harmonic Generation in Single GaP Nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sanatinia, M. Swillo, and S. Anand, “Surface Second-Harmonic Generation from Vertical GaP Nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 820–826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szep, A.

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with half wave voltage of 0.25V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, D.

Tang, X.

R. Kotipalli, R. Delamare, O. Poncelet, X. Tang, L. A. Francis, and D. Flandre, “Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide,” EPJ Photovolt. 4, 45107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teraoka, I.

S. Arnold, R. Ramjit, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and I. Teraoka, “MicroParticle photophysics illuminates viral bio-sensing,” Faraday Discuss. 137, 65 (2008).
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S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 272–274 (2003).
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Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-Optical Efficient Wavelength Conversion Using Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vallini, F.

R. Sharma, M. Puckett, H. Lin, F. Vallini, and Y. Fainman, “Characterizing the effects of free carriers in fully etched, dielectric-clad silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration showing the size of the proposed waveguide relative to the optical carrier’s approximate free-space wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FEM models showing the x-component of the electric field for the TE-like mode, normalized to 1 W of propagating power, supported by the (a) unclad and (b) aluminum oxide clad NRA waveguide. For both figures, the x- and y-axis are in units of microns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic showing the simulated structure (not including the top cladding layers of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide). (b) Normalized transmission (T) and reflection (R) spectra for the tapered and untampered cases (Inset: top-down view of the simulated structure).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Target dimensions and (b) SEM micrograph image of the NRA waveguide cross-section. (c,d) FEM-generated plot of the dominant field component for the TM- and TE-like modes, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a,b) SEM micrographs showing the NRA ring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide, and (c) the transmission spectrum measured at the output of the bus waveguide, additionally showing the Q-factor of each resonance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical setup used to measure the third-harmonic signal of the silicon samples. (b) Measured third-harmonic spectra for the samples with different trench and ridge geometries. (c) THG signal as a function of the angle of polarization of the input beam. (d) Spatially resolved optical images of the third-harmonic signal for two orthogonal polarizations of the input beam

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Electric field amplitudes of non-degenerate modes upon the introduction of a 30 nm-wide dielectric particle (indicated by an arrow) into a 40 μm-radius ring resonator for (a,b) a traditional waveguide and (c,d) an unclad NRA waveguide. In (a,c), the mode exhibits an antinode at the particle’s position whereas in (b,d), it exhibits a maximum. (e) Frequency splitting of the mode as a function of the particle’s position within the NRA waveguide. Also shown is a cutline of the electric field amplitude, given horizontally across the waveguide.

Equations (3)

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T= t 2 2tτcos( θ )+ τ 2 12tτcos( θ )+ ( tτ ) 2
θ= 4 π 2 n eff r λ
α[ dB μm ]= 20 log 10 ( τ ) L[ μm ]

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