Abstract

Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. A. Kirkby, K. M. Srinivas Nadella, and R. A. Silver, “A compact Acousto-Optic Lens for 2D and 3D femtosecond based 2-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13720–13745 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kremer, J. F. Léger, R. Lapole, N. Honnorat, Y. Candela, S. Dieudonné, and L. Bourdieu, “A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10066–10076 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, “Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064038 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

E. Beaurepaire, M. Oheim, and J. Mertz, “Ultra-deep two-photon fluorescence excitation in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 25–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, “Acousto-optic lens with very fast focus scanning,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1078–1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1981 (1)

E. H. Young and S. K. Yao, “Design Considerations for Acoustooptic Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54–64 (1981).
[Crossref]

Apter, B.

Bahat-Treidel, E.

Bardos, A. M.

Beaurepaire, E.

E. Beaurepaire, M. Oheim, and J. Mertz, “Ultra-deep two-photon fluorescence excitation in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 25–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bechtold, P.

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bos, P. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bourdieu, L.

Y. Kremer, J. F. Léger, R. Lapole, N. Honnorat, Y. Candela, S. Dieudonné, and L. Bourdieu, “A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10066–10076 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Candela, Y.

Chatenay, D.

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiovini, B.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czubayko, U.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davidson, N.

Denk, W.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Theer, M. T. Hasan, and W. Denk, “Two-photon imaging to a depth of 1000 μm in living brains by use of a Ti:Al2O3 regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 28(12), 1022–1024 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dieudonné, S.

Y. Kremer, J. F. Léger, R. Lapole, N. Honnorat, Y. Candela, S. Dieudonné, and L. Bourdieu, “A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10066–10076 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duemani Reddy, G.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Efron, U.

Emiliani, V.

Escuti, M. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fink, R.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, N.

Guillon, M.

Hasan, M. T.

Heikenfeld, J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herb, J. T.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez, O.

Hillier, D.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohenstein, R.

Honnorat, N.

Ji, N.

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, A.

Kaszás, A.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katona, G.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelleher, K.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerr, J. N.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkby, P. A.

Kremer, Y.

Y. Kremer, J. F. Léger, R. Lapole, N. Honnorat, Y. Candela, S. Dieudonné, and L. Bourdieu, “A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10066–10076 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krichevsky, O.

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lapole, R.

Léger, J. F.

Y. Kremer, J. F. Léger, R. Lapole, N. Honnorat, Y. Candela, S. Dieudonné, and L. Bourdieu, “A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10066–10076 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Looger, L. L.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maák, P.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mertz, J.

E. Beaurepaire, M. Oheim, and J. Mertz, “Ultra-deep two-photon fluorescence excitation in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 25–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mittmann, W.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oheim, M.

E. Beaurepaire, M. Oheim, and J. Mertz, “Ultra-deep two-photon fluorescence excitation in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 25–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

Papagiakoumou, E.

Reddy, G. D.

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, “Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064038 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roska, B.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rózsa, B.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saggau, P.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, “Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064038 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salomé, R.

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, T. R.

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaefer, A. T.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M.

Serati, S.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Silver, R. A.

Srinivas Nadella, K. M.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szalay, G.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theer, P.

VanderLugt, A.

Veress, M.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vizi, E. S.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, D. J.

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wyart, C.

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H. K.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, S. K.

E. H. Young and S. K. Yao, “Design Considerations for Acoustooptic Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54–64 (1981).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, R.

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, E. H.

E. H. Young and S. K. Yao, “Design Considerations for Acoustooptic Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54–64 (1981).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, “Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064038 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

R. Salomé, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonné, J. F. Léger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154(1-2), 161–174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (3)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (2)

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Mittmann, D. J. Wallace, U. Czubayko, J. T. Herb, A. T. Schaefer, L. L. Looger, W. Denk, and J. N. Kerr, “Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo,” Nat. Neurosci. 14(8), 1089–1093 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Beaurepaire, M. Oheim, and J. Mertz, “Ultra-deep two-photon fluorescence excitation in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 25–29 (2001).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (2)

E. H. Young and S. K. Yao, “Design Considerations for Acoustooptic Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54–64 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A Review of Phased Array Steering for Narrow-Band Electrooptical Systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

N. Ji, T. R. Sato, and E. Betzig, “Characterization and adaptive optical correction of aberrations during in vivo imaging in the mouse cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(1), 22–27 (2012).
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J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics (SPIE Press, 2004).

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design and Applications (John Wiley, 1992).

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1996).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup. The laser output (200 fs pulses, 840 nm, 80 kHz repetition) was magnified by a first telescope to fit the aperture of the acousto-optic elements. A long pass filter (PB) blocked residual OPA pump light and the linear polarization was adjusted at the entrances of the AOM and the Y-AOD using half-wave plates. A second telescope imaged the Y-AOD onto the X-AOD and the resulting wavefront was analysed with a Shack-Hartmann sensor after passing through a third telescope with a 4/3 magnification and after pulse power adjustment by dispersing excess power in a beam dump (BD). Y-AOD, X-AOD and Shack-Hartmann sensor were placed in optically conjugated planes. The position of the AOM with respect to the Y-AOD was adjusted to compensate for the temporal dispersion of the acousto-optic elements. The output of a fast photodiode (PD) served to synchronize the AOD update to the laser emission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Accuracy of AOD wavefront control. a) Schematic of the test protocol consisting of an acoustic frequency step applied to the Y-AOD. A temporal jitter Δτ in the control of the ultrasonic wave results in a spatial jitter ∆y = vΔτ in the transition centroid of the wavefront following a stepped frequency command, which in turns causes a phase jitter ΔφAOD. b) Measured wavefronts obtained from a 10 MHz frequency step: overlay of 20 individual wavefronts (black) and mean wavefront (red; N = 1000) obtained from linear fits to the reconstructed wavefronts of single laser pulses. Circles (red) indicate the lineup of microlenses in y direction. Phase is set to zero at the position of the mean transition centroid defined as the zero position (y = 0). c) Histogram of the measured phases for N = 1000 laser pulses with respect to the mean phase. d-f) Summary of phase measurements as in a), but for different amplitudes of frequency step Δf (d). e) Measured mean phases with microlens positions as circles. f) Spatial and temporal jitters, Δy and Δτ, respectively, as a function of the frequency step amplitude, evaluated from the standard deviation of the respective phase histograms as shown in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AOD-generated diffractive lenses. a)-c) Cylindrical lenses created within a 3.6 mm diameter optical pupil by linearly chirped acoustic waves applied to the Y-AOD. Shown are the acoustic frequency signals (a) with chirp rates between −1.5 and + 1.5 MHz/µs, the mean wavefronts (with vertical error bars indicating STD) obtained from N = 1000 single-pulse phase measurements (b, circles; color-coded for different chirp rates) and parabolic fits to the data (straight lines; black) and the focal distances (c) calculated from fitted wavefronts as function of the inverse chirp rate together with the line (dashed) of linear regression. Phases are set to zero at the edge of the pupil (y = 0). Chirped acoustic waves filling the pupil involved 75 discrete frequency update steps. d) Concave and convex spherical lenses created by applying the same chirped acoustic signal to X- and Y-AOD. The panel shows two-dimensional phase images of a detection pupil of 2.7 mm (in AOD coordinates) encompassing 58 generation steps of the acoustic waveforms after averaging about 100 pulses. Numbers on top are the focal distances calculated from the wavefront curvatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Approximation of Zernike polynomial phase functions. a) Measured 2D spatial phase of the laser beam diffracted by the X-Y AODs for approximation of Zernike polynomial functions of Noll index up to 14 (first column), shown together with the expected phase (second column), the Zernike template (third column) and the difference between measured phase and template phase (pointwise difference; forth column). The pupil size was 2.7 mm corresponding to 58 discretization steps of the acoustic waveform. Phases in columns 1 to 3 are normalized to an RMS sum of unity. First and second order 45° astigmatisms (i = 3, 11) and quadrafoil (i = 10) are not reproduced in the AODs and therefore omitted. b) Measured (red) and predicted (blue; see Table 1) match index m [as defined by Eq. (11)] for Zernike modes to 4th order.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Astigmatism compensation. An astigmatic wavefront is imposed as an offset pattern to the wavefront sensor. a) Output of the wavefront sensor at zero AOD compensation showing the astigmatism offset. b) Family of pairwise acoustic frequency signals fed to the X-AOD (red) and Y-AOD (blue) for different degrees of astigmatism compensation. Simultaneously applied chirps in X-AOD and Y-AOD had opposite sign, but same magnitude. c) Measured RMS values (RMS pixel sum measuring deviation from a flat waveform) as function of the applied compensating chirp for the acoustic frequency signals shown in b). d) Output of the wavefront sensor at optimal compensation. e) Beam 2D spatial phase at different levels of compensation with applied chirps given below. The measurements were performed on a 2.7 mm pupil (in AOD equivalent coordinates) enclosing 58 discrete synthetizing steps of the acoustic waveform.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Representation of Zernike phase functions in the four-AOD configuration. a) Predicted representation of Zernike modes up to Noll index 14 when shaped by four AODs with active axes oriented 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°. Shown are the normalized phases together with the deviation (pointwise difference) from the Zernike mode of same order, with Z12 being the 1st order spherical aberration. The predictions are based on decomposition of Zernike functions into compatible polynomial terms analogous to Table 1. b) Predicted match index of Zernike modes shaped in the 4 AOD (red) versus the 2 AOD configuration (blue).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Decomposition of the wavefront generated in the XY-AOD configuration in Zernike modes up to 4th order in Cartesian coordinates. Error and predicted match index are as defined in Eq. (11). The functions are indexed according to either radial (subscript) and azimuthal (superscript) order, or the composite Noll index. φ1 and φ2 are phase functions of X- and Y-AOD, respectively, as defined in Eq. (9).

Equations (11)

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M AOD ( x )=T( a AOD ( x ) )  e i φ AOD ( x )
θ( x )= λ f AOD ( x ) v
d φ AOD ( x ) dx =  2π λ θ( x )= 2π f AOD ( x ) v
φ AOD ( x )= 2π v L/2 x f AOD ( u )du
φ AOD ( x )= 2π  v ( x  f AOD ( x ) L/2 x u d f AOD du du +L/2   f AOD ( L /2 ) )
f AOD ( x i )= v 2π φ AOD ( x i+1 ) φ AOD ( x i ) x i+1 x i , for i=1 to N1
φ AOD ( x i+1 )= φ AOD ( x i )+ 2π v ( x i+1 x i )  f AOD ( x i ), for i=1 to N1
Δ φ AOD =2π Δτ Δf
M AOD ( x,y )= T 1 ( a 1 ( x ) )  T 2 ( a 2 ( y ) )  e i( φ 1 ( x )+ φ 2 ( y ) )
F AOD = v 2 λα
m( i )=   a ii 2  / (   j=1 j=35   a ij 2   )

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