Abstract

Plasmonic antennas integrated on silicon devices have large and yet unexplored potential for controlling and routing light signals. Here, we present theoretical calculations of a hybrid silicon-metallic system in which a single gold nanoantenna embedded in a single-mode silicon waveguide acts as a resonance-driven filter. As a consequence of scattering and interference, when the resonance condition of the antenna is met, the transmission drops by 85% in the resonant frequency band. Firstly, we study analytically the interaction between the propagating mode and the antenna by including radiative corrections to the scattering process and the polarization of the waveguide walls. Secondly, we find the configuration of maximum interaction and numerically simulate a realistic nanoantenna in a silicon waveguide. The numerical calculations show a large suppression of transmission and three times more scattering than absorption, consequent with the analytical model. The system we propose can be easily fabricated by standard silicon and plasmonic lithographic methods, making it promising as real component in future optoelectronic circuits.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

Y. Luo, M. Chamanzar, A. Apuzzo, R. Salas-Montiel, K. N. Nguyen, S. Blaize, and A. Adibi, “On-chip hybrid photonic-plasmonic light concentrator for nanofocusing in an integrated silicon photonics platform,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 849–856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, P. Van Dorpe, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “Bright and dark plasmon resonances of nanoplasmonic antennas evanescently coupled with a silicon nitride waveguide,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3088–3101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bruck, B. Mills, B. Troia, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, V. M. N. Passaro, G. T. Reed, and O. L. Muskens, “Device-level characterization of the flow of light in integrated photonic circuits using ultrafast photomodulation spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 54–60 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. Goban, C.-L. Hung, S.-P. Yu, J. D. Hood, J. A. Muniz, J. H. Lee, M. J. Martin, A. C. McClung, K. S. Choi, D. E. Chang, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, “Atom-light interactions in photonic crystals,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3808 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, M. P. Nielsen, T. R. Roschuk, A. V. Zayats, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Compact optical antenna coupler for silicon photonics characterized by third-harmonic generation,” ACS Photonics 1(10), 912–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, P. Ginzburg, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation with hyperbolic metamaterial integrated in Si photonic circuitry,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10987–10994 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bruck and O. L. Muskens, “Plasmonic nanoantennas as integrated coherent perfect absorbers on SOI waveguides for modulators and all-optical switches,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27652–27661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

H. Marinchio, J. J. Saénz, and R. Carminati, “Light scattering by a magneto-optical nanoparticle in front of a flat surface: perturbative approach,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245425 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Plasmonic nanofocusing of light in an integrated silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13150–13157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang and E. A. Hinds, “Dye molecules as single-photon sources and large optical nonlinearities on a chip,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 085009 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE 3, 3 (2011).

2010 (8)

S. Albaladejo, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, H. Marinchio, R. Carminati, J. F. Torrado, G. Armelles, A. García-Martín, and J. J. Sáenz, “Radiative corrections to the polarizability tensor of an electrically small anisotropic dielectric particle,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3556–3567 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ameling and H. Giessen, “Cavity plasmonics: large normal mode splitting of electric and magnetic particle plasmons induced by a photonic microcavity,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4394–4398 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonics for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Gómez-Medina, P. San José, A. García-Martín, M. Lester, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Resonant radiation pressure on neutral particles in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(19), 4275–4277 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

Y. Luo, M. Chamanzar, A. Apuzzo, R. Salas-Montiel, K. N. Nguyen, S. Blaize, and A. Adibi, “On-chip hybrid photonic-plasmonic light concentrator for nanofocusing in an integrated silicon photonics platform,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 849–856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aichele, T.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Albaladejo, S.

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonics for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, M.

M.-C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ameling, R.

R. Ameling and H. Giessen, “Cavity plasmonics: large normal mode splitting of electric and magnetic particle plasmons induced by a photonic microcavity,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4394–4398 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amrania, H.

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apuzzo, A.

Y. Luo, M. Chamanzar, A. Apuzzo, R. Salas-Montiel, K. N. Nguyen, S. Blaize, and A. Adibi, “On-chip hybrid photonic-plasmonic light concentrator for nanofocusing in an integrated silicon photonics platform,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 849–856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armelles, G.

Asano, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonics for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, M.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, J.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 891–895 (2010).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

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Proc. IEEE (1)

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Science (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Single plasmonic nanoantenna embedded in a silicon waveguide. (a) 3D representation of the system under study. A gold nanorod is inserted in a gap created in a single-mode silicon waveguide. A TE mode is lunched from one side of the waveguide and interacts with the metallic nanoantenna. (b) Total interaction between the ellipsoid nanoantenna and the waveguide mode at different wavelengths for increasing size of the long axis of the ellipsoid (from 10 to 350 nm). The maximum interaction happens at the resonance length of the ellipsoid and reaches values of ~55%.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Maximum optical interaction between nanoantenna and propagating mode. (a) FDTD intensity distribution map of the propagating mode without the antenna at a wavelength of λ = 1.57 μm. (b) Percentage of the transmitted (red circles) and reflected (blue squares) power as a function of the position (depth) of the nanoantenna (shown with black dashed lines in (a)). The dashed lines represent transmission (red) and reflection (blue) of the mode without the presence of the antenna. The position of maximum interaction is found to be at a depth of 250 nm inside the waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical response of the hybrid metal-silicon system. FDTD distribution maps of the (a) intensity and (b) phase of a TE mode propagating (from left to right) through the silicon waveguide and interacting with the metallic antenna at its resonance wavelength (λ = 1.57μm). Light is almost completely blocked by the antenna and partially reflected backwards creating an interference pattern. The antenna also adds a phase shift to the propagating mode. The insets show the intensity (up) and phase (down) of the propagating TE mode without the presence of the antenna.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectral response of the hybrid metal-silicon system. Power transmission through the silicon waveguide (top) and spectral phase (bottom) of the system with (red line) and without (black line) the metallic antenna. At the resonance wavelength of the antenna, the transmission is blocked around 85% and the phase shifts almost π/3 rad when the antenna is present. The gray dashed curves show the normalized near-field intensity (top) and phase (bottom) in the vicinity of the antenna that corresponds to that of a harmonic oscillator.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Intensity distribution and power dissipation channels. (Top) Intensity distribution map at the plane of the antenna showing the localization of the fields inside the waveguide. (Bottom) A detailed monitoring of the power dissipation channels reveals around 15% transmission (Tx), 39% reflection (Rx), 13% scattering towards the substrate (SD), 6% scattering towards the sides (SS + SSWG) and 3% scattering up (SU) which leaves around 24% accounting for the losses of the waveguide and the absorption in the metal.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison between analyitical and numerical methods. (Top) analytical and (bottom) numerical calculations of the total absorption of a resonant gold nanoantenna embedded in a single-mode silicon waveguide. The value of the total absorption presents similar trends in both methods. The differences in the actual resonance lengths and maximum values are coming from the antenna shape and the presence of the substrate.

Equations (12)

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σ ext = k ε 0 ε m | E 0 | 2 { E 0 * p },
p= [ I k 2 α{ G( r p , r im1 )+G( r p , r im2 ) }{ ε Si 1 ε Si +1 η } ] 1 p 0 ,
σ ext = k ε 0 ε m | E 0 | 2 { E 0 * p },
σ abs = k ε 0 ε m | E 0 | 2 { ( p E * ) k 3 6π ε 0 ε m | p | 2 },
σ sca = k 4 ε 0 2 ε m 2 6π | E 0 | 2 | p | 2 ,
p= ε 0 ε m αE,
α 0,ii =3ν ε p ε m 3 ε m +3 L i ( ε p ε m ) ,
α= α 0 1i k 3 6π α 0 ,
p im = ϵ ω ( ω )+1 ϵ ω ( ω )1 ηp,
η=[ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ],
E( r p )= E 0 ( r p )+ k 2 ϵ 0 ϵ m { G( r p , r im1 ) p im1 +G( r p , r im2 ) p im2 },
p= [ I k 2 α{ G( r p , r im1 )+G( r p , r im2 ) }{ ε Si 1 ε Si +1 η } ] 1 p 0 ,

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