Abstract

We developed a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to reduce auto-correlation artifacts (AC) using dual-balanced detection (DBD). AC were composed of the interference signals between different sample tissue depths, and shown up as artifacts in OCT images. This system employed a free-space Michelson interferometer, at the refraction plane of whose beam splitter, the light reflected experienced a π/2 phase shift with respect to the light transmitted. Then two phase-opposed interferometric spectra sharing the same spectrometer optics were obtained simultaneously using two lines of a three-line CCD. This new design was of lower cost compared to the dual spectrometer design reported previously. DBD enabled this SD-OCT to achieve two-fold increase in the interested signal amplitude inherently, and obtain a SNR increase of ~2.9 dB experimentally. To demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this SD-OCT system with DBD, we conducted an imaging experiment using a glass plate to obtain the optimal spectral matching between dual-balanced spectrometer channels. As a result, this SD-OCT achieved AC reduction up to about 9 dB and direct current (DC) term suppression up to about 30 dB by cancelling the identical components between dual-balanced spectrometer channels. The efficacy of AC reduction and DC suppression was validated by imaging the polymer coating of a drug-eluting stent and fresh swine corneal tissue ex vivo. The quality of DBD optimized images was significantly improved with regard to the single-channel images.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 480–482 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Marques, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: approaches to dual-channel retinal tissue imaging,” in Frontiers in Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper FTu2F. 3.
  8. B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Cui, X. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, S. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Gu, P. Shum, and L. Liu, “Dual spectrometer system with spectral compounding for 1-μm optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6727–6730 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.
  12. R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. G. Podoleanu, “Unbalanced versus balanced operation in an optical coherence tomography system,” Appl. Opt. 39(1), 173–182 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. W.-C. Kuo, Y.-S. Lai, C.-M. Lai, and Y.-S. Huang, “Balanced detection spectral domain optical coherence tomography with a multiline single camera for signal-to-noise ratio enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 51(24), 5936–5940 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. W.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Lai, Y.-S. Huang, C.-Y. Chang, and Y.-M. Kuo, “Balanced detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19280–19291 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system with balance detection,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17522–17538 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Mo, M. de Groot, and J. F. de Boer, “Focus-extension by depth-encoded synthetic aperture in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10048–10061 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300‐nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
  21. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300‐nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).

2004 (3)

2003 (5)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bradu, A.

Cense, B.

Chang, C.-Y.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, T. C.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 480–482 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300‐nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).

Cui, D.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

de Groot, M.

Ding, S.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J.

Ellerbee, A. K.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hsu, K.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300‐nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-S.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300‐nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kuo, W.-C.

Kuo, Y.-M.

Lai, C.-M.

Lai, Y.-S.

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

D. Cui, X. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, S. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Gu, P. Shum, and L. Liu, “Dual spectrometer system with spectral compounding for 1-μm optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6727–6730 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

Liu, X.

D. Cui, X. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, S. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Gu, P. Shum, and L. Liu, “Dual spectrometer system with spectral compounding for 1-μm optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6727–6730 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

Luo, Y.

Mo, J.

Mujat, M.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, W.

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

Shum, P.

Sim, S. S. W.

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

Srinivasan, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, C.

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

Wojtkowski, M.

Xu, C.

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

Xu, Z. J.

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Yun, S.-H.

Zawadzki, R.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300‐nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, M. de Groot, and J. F. de Boer, “Focus-extension by depth-encoded synthetic aperture in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10048–10061 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Lai, Y.-S. Huang, C.-Y. Chang, and Y.-M. Kuo, “Balanced detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19280–19291 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system with balance detection,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17522–17538 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. J. Marques, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: approaches to dual-channel retinal tissue imaging,” in Frontiers in Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper FTu2F. 3.

W. Shi, X. Liu, C. Wei, Z. J. Xu, S. S. W. Sim, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale. in press.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical configuration of SD-OCT system with dual-balanced detection. L1-L6, lens; BS1-BS3, beam splitter; RM, reference mirror; SMF, single mode fiber; CH1-2, dual-balanced channel; VGA, v-groove array; G, grating; CL, camera link cable; IMAQ, image acquisition; PC, personal computer; AO, analog output; GS, galvo scanner.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Original interference fringes from CH1 (black curve) and CH2 (red curve). (b) Original interference fringes from CH1 (black curve) and CH2 (red curve) subtracted by their background respectively. (c) Fringes achieved with DBD configuration. (d) The depth resolved signals after FFT from SD-OCT with SD (black curve) and DBD (red curve) configuration respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of multilayer sample. (b) Cross-sectional images of the glass plate obtained using SD from CH1 and CH2 respectively, and using BDB. (c) A-line profiles indicated in red line in (b). The front surface and back surface were indicated by FS and BS; DC terms and auto-correlation terms were indicated by DC and AC.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) An intuitive schematic of the drug-eluting stent. The blue plane indicates the scanning direction. (b) Cross-sectional images of the stent obtained using SD from CH1 and CH2 respectively, and using BDB. DC: direct current term; AC: auto-correlation term; PC: polymer coating; MA: mental alloy; MI: mirror image; PD: petri dish. (c) A-line profiles indicated in red line in (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-sectional images of the central area of a swine cornea captured using SD from CH1 (a) and CH2 (b) respectively, and using BDB (c). EP: epithelium layer, BL: Bowman’s layer, ST: Stroma, DM: Descemet’s membrane, ED: Endothelium layer. Three images consist of 674 axial × 472 transverse pixels covering 0.32 mm × 1.0 mm.

Equations (5)

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I D (k)=DC+ a(z)cos(2knz)dz+AC
SNR[dB]=10log( N ref N sam N el 2 + N sh 2 + N RIN 2 )
{ N ref = ητ hν P ref N sam = ητ hν P sam
{ N el 2 = N read 2 + N dark 2 N sh 2 = N ref N RIN 2 =(f/ Δν ) N ref 2
SN R DBD [dB]=10log( 2 N ref N sam N el 2 + N sh 2 )

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