Abstract

We report on the characterization of a multilayer Laue lens (MLL) with large acceptance, made of a novel WSi2/Al bilayer system. Fabrication of multilayers with large deposition thickness is required to obtain MLL structures with sufficient apertures capable of accepting the full lateral coherence length of x-rays at typical nanofocusing beamlines. To date, the total deposition thickness has been limited by stress-buildup in the multilayer. We were able to grow WSi2/Al with low grown-in stress, and asses the degree of stress reduction. X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted at beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source. We used monochromatic x-rays with a photon energy of 12 keV and a bandwidth of ΔEE=5.4·104. The MLL was grown with parallel layer interfaces, and was designed to have a large focal length of 9.6 mm. The mounted lens was 2.7 mm in width. We found and quantified kinks and bending of sections of the MLL. Sections with bending were found to partly have a systematic progression in the interface angles. We observed kinking in some, but not all, areas. The measurements are compared with dynamic diffraction calculations made with Coupled Wave Theory. Data are plotted showing the diffraction efficiency as a function of the external tilting angle of the entire mounted lens. This way of plotting the data was found to provide an overview into the diffraction properties of the whole lens, and enabled the following layer tilt analyses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  29. C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
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    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 748–755, (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.  47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. Yan and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of multilayer Laue lenses for a scanning X-ray microscope,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(1), 89–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 033405 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2), 355–362 (1992).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Andrejczuk, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 748–755, (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and S. Bajt, “Influence of imperfections in a wedged multilayer Laue lens for the focusing of X-rays investigated by beam propagation method,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. (in press) (2015).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Assoufid, L.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft x-rays and extre ultraviolet radiation: principles and applications (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 748–755, (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and S. Bajt, “Influence of imperfections in a wedged multilayer Laue lens for the focusing of X-rays investigated by beam propagation method,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. (in press) (2015).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

Barret, R.

Barthelmess, M.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bean, R. J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschi, A.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouet, N.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.  47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Braun, S.

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Braun and H. Mai, “Multilayers for x-ray optical purposes,” in Metal based thin films for electronics, K. Wetzig and C. M. Schneider, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Broennimann, C.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 748–755, (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

Chu, L.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.  47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yan and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of multilayer Laue lenses for a scanning X-ray microscope,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(1), 89–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

Conley, R.

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.  47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

David, C.

De Carlo, F.

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Dinapoli, R.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eigenberry, E. F.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
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Eliceiri, K. W.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
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Eom, D.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ermann, M.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Farm, E.

Gawlitza, P.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

Goetze, K.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Gorelick, S.

Graafsma, H.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guzenko, V. A.

Harder, R.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hecker, M.

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinrich, B.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiller, Jon

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holt, M.

Huang, X.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ichimaru, S.

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jahedi, N.

Johnson, I.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kagoshima, Y.

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kalbfleisch, S.

Kang, C.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

Kewish, C.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kewish, C. M.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Farm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barret, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-keV regime,” Opt. Express 19(1), 175–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Khachatryan, R.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Koritala, R.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koyama, T.

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kraft, P.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, P.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krzywinski, J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 748–755, (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and S. Bajt, “Influence of imperfections in a wedged multilayer Laue lens for the focusing of X-rays investigated by beam propagation method,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. (in press) (2015).
[Crossref]

Kubec, A.

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

Kujala, N.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Laas, R.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

Lai, B.

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lauer, K.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Legnini, D.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Leontowich, A. F. G.

Leson, A.

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lima, E.

Liu, C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

Lu, M.

Macrander, A. T.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Mai, H.

S. Braun and H. Mai, “Multilayers for x-ray optical purposes,” in Metal based thin films for electronics, K. Wetzig and C. M. Schneider, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Mancini, D. C.

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marathe, S.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Maser, J.

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2), 355–362 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

D. Shu, H. Yan, and J. Maser, “Multidimensional alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing with two multilayer laue lenses,” US Patent7,597,475 (October62009).

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

Meents, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Melzer, K.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

Miller, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morgan, A. J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mozzan-ica, A.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazaretski, E.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Niese, S.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nocher, D.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Oberthuer, D.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohchi, T.

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Patommel, J.

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennicard, D.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prasciolu, M.

Prascioulu, M.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, J.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rasband, W. S.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritala, M.

Robinson, I. K.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Rose, V.

Schleptz, C. M.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmahl, G.

J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2), 355–362 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, B.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, C. A.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

A. Kubec, S. Braun, S. Niese, P. Krüger, J. Patommel, M. Hecker, A. Leson, and C. G. Schroer, “Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 033405 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shi, X.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Shu, D.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, C. Liu, D. C. Mancini, F. De Carlo, A. T. Macrander, B. Lai, and D. Shu, “Performance of a double-multilayer monochromator at Beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1485–1487 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Shu, H. Yan, and J. Maser, “Multidimensional alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing with two multilayer laue lenses,” US Patent7,597,475 (October62009).

Stephenson, G. B.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

Stoupin, S.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Sullivan, J.

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Takaono, H.

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, H.

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsuji, T.

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takaono, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer laue lens as nanometer X-Ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(11), 117003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vila-Comamala, J.

Vogt, S.

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

Wieczorek, M.

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willmott, P. R.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojcik, M.

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

Yan, H.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.  47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yan and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of multilayer Laue lenses for a scanning X-ray microscope,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(1), 89–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, Jon Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
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YanH, H.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
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J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

Zhou, J.

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
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X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
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A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 µm aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
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H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.  47(26), 263001 (2014).
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P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Broennimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eigenberry, B. Heinrich, I. Johnson, A. Mozzan-ica, C. M. Schleptz, P. R. Willmott, and B. Schmitt, “Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 368–375 (2009).
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H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meeth. Phys. Res. 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
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H. Yan, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ref. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. YanH, C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Ref. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

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X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. J. Morgan, M. Prascioulu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films 571, 321–324, (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. T. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proceedings of Optical Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 185–194.

A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and S. Bajt, “Influence of imperfections in a wedged multilayer Laue lens for the focusing of X-rays investigated by beam propagation method,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. (in press) (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Attwood, Soft x-rays and extre ultraviolet radiation: principles and applications (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, M. Ermann, N. Kujala, S. Stoupin, S. Marathe, X. Shi, M. Wojcik, D. Nocher, R. Conley, J. Sullivan, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and L. Assoufid, “X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source,” Synchrotron Radiation Instruments Conference, New York City, USA, July 6–10, 2015.

D. Shu, H. Yan, and J. Maser, “Multidimensional alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing with two multilayer laue lenses,” US Patent7,597,475 (October62009).

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry,” in Proceedings of Science and Technology, the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 127–132 (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic view of the MLL measurement setup. Diffraction data are acquired by rocking the MLL through the incident beam, satisfying the local Bragg conditions for different d-spacings consecutively. The distance between MLL and detector is d1 = 90 cm. For transmission measurements, the beamstop is removed and an Andor Neo CCD camera is put in place d2 = 33 cm downstream of the lens. (b) Example of an acquired transmission image. The top and bottom dark areas represent shadows of the slits. The higher absorbing WSi2/Al structures have somewhat larger absorption than the silicon enclosing the MLL structure in a sandwich (similar to [15]) and therefore appear as a gray band with extinction features in areas where the local Bragg condition is satisfied. The d-spacing of the MLL varies vertically from 4 nm on the upper end to 20 nm on the lower end of the structure. A dark extinction band is visible near the middle.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diffracted beam as a function of rocking angle for the first order for a 172 µm wide segment of the structure. The diffracted beam is bright where diffraction is most intense. Increasing angular width of the diffracted beam corresponds to increased Darwin width of the Bragg peak for larger d-spacings, and corresponds to a reciprocal space representation of the Fresnel zone plate law. Intensity is shown with linear scaling.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Diffraction efficiency as a function of the rocking angle shown as a result of (a) the calculation for a perfect lens, (b) measurement of a lens with a kink and (c) measurement of a bent lens. Intensities are shown in logarithmic scales.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Spatial frequency as a function of the radius of the corresponding zone plate structure. (b) The calculation of the lens with the actual measured layer placement error and calculation based on the ideal design are shown in (b) and (c) respectively. Intensity is shown in logarithmic scale. Note that part (c) is identical to Fig. 3(a) and shown here for a better comparison.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) shows a color map based on the layer tilt analysis including the kinks identified. The far right segment inherits a bent segment but no kinks and is expected to be usable for focusing experiments. (b) shows the color map with an additional 3D representation, where the kinks are visible as steps for better visualization. The black boxes on the color mark the segments, for which Fig. 3(b) and (c) show the respective diffraction pattern. (c) shows the color map of (b) with two modifications: the nonzero angles at the interface to the substrate are disregarded and the large kinks are removed from the data. This representation shows the residual angular deformation.

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