Abstract

We propose a polarizer-free liquid crystal display (LCD) consisting of two microlens array (MLA) layers, a twisted nematic (TN) LC layer, and two light-blocking masks. By changing the polarization state, focal length of the LCD can be controlled. Since two light-blocking masks have a circular stop pattern and a complementary open pattern, entire gray-scale spectrum may be realized by controlling the intensity of light passing through masks. Ultimately, fast response time characteristics could be achieved due to the alignment of LC molecules on the flat MLA surface.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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Polarizer-free liquid crystal display with electrically switchable microlens array

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Optically isotropic switchable microlens arrays based on liquid crystal

You-Jin Lee, Chang-Jae Yu, Jae-Ho Lee, Ji-Ho Baek, Youngsik Kim, and Jae-Hoon Kim
Appl. Opt. 53(17) 3633-3636 (2014)

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  1. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  2. I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–93 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, Y. Kim, J. U. Heo, Y.-K. Moon, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Polarizer-free liquid crystal display with electrically switchable microlens array,” Opt. Express 21(1), 129–134 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Piazzolla and B. K. Jenkins, “Dynamics during holographic exposure in photopolymers for single and multiplexed gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(15), 2079–2110 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10298–10303 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, and J.-H. Kim, “Direct image of a molecular orientation of liquid crystal using directional polymerization of photoreactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033106 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, and J.-H. Kim, “Direct image of a molecular orientation of liquid crystal using directional polymerization of photoreactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Piazzolla and B. K. Jenkins, “Dynamics during holographic exposure in photopolymers for single and multiplexed gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(15), 2079–2110 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–93 (1968).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-H.

Doane, J. W.

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

Green, S.

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gwag, J. S.

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–93 (1968).
[Crossref]

Heo, J. U.

Jenkins, B. K.

S. Piazzolla and B. K. Jenkins, “Dynamics during holographic exposure in photopolymers for single and multiplexed gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(15), 2079–2110 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J.

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jo, S. I.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, and J.-H. Kim, “Direct image of a molecular orientation of liquid crystal using directional polymerization of photoreactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10298–10303 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, A.

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, Y. Kim, J. U. Heo, Y.-K. Moon, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Polarizer-free liquid crystal display with electrically switchable microlens array,” Opt. Express 21(1), 129–134 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, and J.-H. Kim, “Direct image of a molecular orientation of liquid crystal using directional polymerization of photoreactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10298–10303 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y. W.

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-K.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, and J.-H. Kim, “Direct image of a molecular orientation of liquid crystal using directional polymerization of photoreactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10298–10303 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Liang, X.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

Magyar, G.

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moon, Y.-K.

Mouroulis, P.

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

Piazzolla, S.

S. Piazzolla and B. K. Jenkins, “Dynamics during holographic exposure in photopolymers for single and multiplexed gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(15), 2079–2110 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pishnyak, O.

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shiyanovskaya, I.

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taylor, G. N.

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[Crossref]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

White, D. L.

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.-G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, Y. Kim, J. U. Heo, Y.-K. Moon, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Polarizer-free liquid crystal display with electrically switchable microlens array,” Opt. Express 21(1), 129–134 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, and J.-H. Kim, “Direct image of a molecular orientation of liquid crystal using directional polymerization of photoreactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10298–10303 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–93 (1968).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Improvement in switching speed of nematic liquid crystal microlens array with polarization independence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 094102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Yu, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, and J.-H. Kim, “Direct image of a molecular orientation of liquid crystal using directional polymerization of photoreactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033106 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–93 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, “New absorptive mode reflective liquid crystal display device,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 4718–4723 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, and S.-T. Wu, “Reflective direct-view displays using a dyedoped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 230–233 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Piazzolla and B. K. Jenkins, “Dynamics during holographic exposure in photopolymers for single and multiplexed gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(15), 2079–2110 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

I. Shiyanovskaya, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 113–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

Y. W. Kim, J. Jeong, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Single polarizer liquid crystal display mode with fast response,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 543(1), 101–106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed polarizer-free LCD.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the LCD fabrication process.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Cross-sectional SEM image of the MLA and microscopic textures under crossed polarizers (b) in same rubbing direction and (c) rotated by 45° with respect to the polarizer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the optical system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Microscopic textures at the first BM layer position for (a) x-axis and (b) y-axis polarized light without applied voltage, and (c) x-axis and (d) y-axis polarized light with an applied voltage.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Beam profiles and textures for (a) voltage off and (b) voltage on states at the 1st focal plane.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The obtained voltage-transmittance characteristics; microscopic images corresponding to each applied voltage are displayed as insets, and (b) the voltage-response time characteristics.

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