Abstract

We report a novel approach to Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a coherent laser source (532 nm) for generating spatially modulated sample illumination. Previously demonstrated FPM systems are all based on partially-coherent illumination, which offers limited throughput due to insufficient brightness. Our FPM employs a high power coherent laser source to enable shot-noise limited high-speed imaging. For the first time, a digital micromirror device (DMD), imaged onto the back focal plane of the illumination objective, is used to generate spatially modulated sample illumination field for ptychography. By coding the on/off states of the micromirrors, the illumination plane wave angle can be varied at speeds more than 4 kHz. A set of intensity images, resulting from different oblique illuminations, are used to numerically reconstruct one high-resolution image without obvious laser speckle. Experiments were conducted using a USAF resolution target and a fiber sample, demonstrating high-resolution imaging capability of our system. We envision that our approach, if combined with a coded-aperture compressive-sensing algorithm, will further improve the imaging speed in DMD-based FPM systems.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (5)

2014 (7)

2013 (5)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Bian, S. Dong, and G. Zheng, “Adaptive system correction for robust Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32400–32410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4845–4848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(4), 604–612 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

Alexandrov, S. A.

Ao, Z.

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batey, D. J.

P. Li, D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaduri, B.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bian, Z.

Bishara, W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boss, D.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brady, D. J.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, J.

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cote, R.

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cotte, Y.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Datar, R.

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di, J.

Dierolf, M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, S.

Dorsch, R. G.

Edo, T. B.

P. Li, D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, C.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, Q.

Faulkner, H. M.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feller, S. D.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, C.

Fienup, J. R.

Gehm, M. E.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goddard, L. L.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golish, D. R.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenbaum, A.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, K.

Gutzler, T.

Hillman, T. R.

Horstmeyer, R.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4845–4848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humphry, M. J.

Isikman, S. O.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Jourdain, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kewish, C. M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khademhosseinieh, B.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kittle, D. S.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuang, C.

P. Xiu, X. Zhou, C. Kuang, Y. Xu, and X. Liu, “Controllable tomography phase microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 66, 301–306 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lau, R.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P.

P. Li, D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liu, X.

P. Xiu, X. Zhou, C. Kuang, Y. Xu, and X. Liu, “Controllable tomography phase microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 66, 301–306 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lohmann, A. W.

Luo, W.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Magistretti, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maiden, A. M.

Marks, D. L.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mavandadi, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendlovic, D.

Menzel, A.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mir, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanda, P.

Nguyen, T. H.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ou, X.

Ozcan, A.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavillon, N.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, H.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Popescu, G.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramchandran, K.

Rawal, S.

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J.

J. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and related diffractive imaging methods,” Adv. Imag. Electron. Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, J. M.

P. Li, D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(4), 604–612 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2585–2587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sampson, D. D.

Schneider, P.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiradkar, R.

Stack, R. A.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T.-W.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

Thibault, P.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, L.

Toy, F.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vera, E. M.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waller, L.

Wang, Y. M.

Wang, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wepf, R.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, A.

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiu, P.

P. Xiu, X. Zhou, C. Kuang, Y. Xu, and X. Liu, “Controllable tomography phase microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 66, 301–306 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

P. Xiu, X. Zhou, C. Kuang, Y. Xu, and X. Liu, “Controllable tomography phase microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 66, 301–306 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, L.

T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

X. Ou, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4960–4972 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4845–4848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, F. W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, P.

Zhao, J.

Zheng, G.

K. Guo, Z. Bian, S. Dong, P. Nanda, Y. M. Wang, and G. Zheng, “Microscopy illumination engineering using a low-cost liquid crystal display,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 574–579 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Guo, S. Dong, P. Nanda, and G. Zheng, “Optimization of sampling pattern and the design of Fourier ptychographic illuminator,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6171–6180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dong, R. Shiradkar, P. Nanda, and G. Zheng, “Spectral multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition in Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(6), 1757–1767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4960–4972 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dong, Z. Bian, R. Shiradkar, and G. Zheng, “Sparsely sampled Fourier ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5455–5464 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dong, K. Guo, P. Nanda, R. Shiradkar, and G. Zheng, “FPscope: a field-portable high-resolution microscope using a cellphone lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3305–3310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4845–4848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bian, S. Dong, and G. Zheng, “Adaptive system correction for robust Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32400–32410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, R. J.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

P. Xiu, X. Zhou, C. Kuang, Y. Xu, and X. Liu, “Controllable tomography phase microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 66, 301–306 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Imag. Electron. Phys. (1)

J. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and related diffractive imaging methods,” Adv. Imag. Electron. Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. J. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 57–119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Williams, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, S. Rawal, Z. Ao, R. Datar, C. Yang, and R. Cote, “Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467(7314), 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486(7403), 386–389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. Xiu, X. Zhou, C. Kuang, Y. Xu, and X. Liu, “Controllable tomography phase microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 66, 301–306 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Increased space-bandwidth product in pixel super-resolved lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-Hill, 2011).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (6681 KB)      The reconstruction of the sample information in spatial and Fourier domain implemented by running the self-developed software written in Matlab

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration of the proposed DMD-based laser-illumination FPM system. DMD: digital micromirror device, CL: condenser lens or illumination objective, OL: objective lens.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The Fourier-plane sampling pattern when using a ring scanning sequence for the on-state micromirrors on the DMD. This sequence is used to recover the Fourier ptychographic image with isotropic resolution enhancements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the whole image recovery procedure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 USAF target Group 7 imaging by using (a) the LED Köhler illumination and (b) the DMD-based Fourier ptychographic method. Fourier spectra of images obtained by using the (c) normal incidence illumination and (d) the DMD-based FPM. The reconstruction of the sample information in spatial and Fourier domain is implemented by running the self-developed software written in Matlab (see Visualization 1).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Imaging of Groups 8 and 9 elements in a USAF target. (a) Resolution target design pattern. (b) A raw image, corresponding to the laser illumination at normal incident angle. (c) Imaging of the same field-of-view with LED Köhler illumination. (d) Reconstructed image obtained by using the DMD-based FPM. (e) Intensity profiles of the lines shown in blue (Element 4, Group 8) in Figs. 5(a), 5(c) and 5(d). The intensity profile of the image with Köhler illumination is relatively flat, while the profile of the reconstructed image obtained by using the DMD-based FPM system shows obvious peaks and valleys, which demonstrates that the proposed FPM system has the lateral resolution of 2.76 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Imaging various structures in a thin cellulose fiber sample using Köhler illumination with a laser source. Reconstructed (b) amplitude and (c) wrapped phase images obtained by using the DMD-based FPM.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Reconstructed images obtained (a) without and (b) with illumination intensity correction. It is noted that no obvious difference exists between reconstructions (a) and (b), which means that the used condenser lens system for illumination provides us with uniform illumination and reduces the complexity of FPM algorithm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a)-(d) Four raw images that were used in Fig. 5 to reconstruct USAF target Group 8 and Group 9 elements using the FPM algorithm. (e)-(h) Corresponding filtered images of (a)-(d) using a circular low-pass function used to update the sample information in the iterative process.

Equations (6)

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Φ l o w ( n ) ( k ) = O ( n 1 ) ( k K n ) P ( n 1 ) ( k ) ,
ϕ l o w ( n ) ( r ) = F 1 { Φ l o w ( n ) ( k ) } ,
ϕ u p d a t e d ( n ) ( r ) = I K n ( r ) ϕ l o w ( n ) ( r ) / | ϕ l o w ( n ) ( r ) | ,
Φ u p d a t e d ( n ) ( k ) = F { ϕ u p d a t e d ( n ) ( r ) } ,
P ( n ) ( k ) = P ( n 1 ) ( k ) + | O ( n 1 ) ( k - K n ) | [ O ( n 1 ) ( k - K n ) ] * [ Φ u p d a t e d ( n ) ( k ) O ( n 1 ) ( k - K n ) P ( n 1 ) ( k ) ] | O ( n 1 ) ( k ) | max ( | O ( n 1 ) ( k - K n ) | 2 + δ 1 ) ,
O ( n ) ( k ) = O ( n 1 ) ( k ) + | P ( n 1 ) ( k + K n ) | [ P ( n 1 ) ( k + K n ) ] * [ Φ u p d a t e d ( n ) ( k + K n ) P ( n 1 ) ( k + K n ) O ( n 1 ) ( k ) ] | P ( n 1 ) ( k ) | max ( | P ( n 1 ) ( k + K n ) | 2 + δ 2 ) ,

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