Abstract

The combination of ultrafast laser dynamics and dense on-chip multiwavelength networking could potentially address new domains of real-time signal processing that require both speed and complexity. We present a physically realistic optoelectronic simulation model of a circuit for dynamical laser neural networks and verify its behavior. We describe the physics, dynamics, and parasitics of one network node, which includes a bank of filters, a photodetector, and excitable laser. This unconventional circuit exhibits both cascadability and fan-in, critical properties for the large-scale networking of information processors based on laser excitability. In addition, it can be instantiated on a photonic integrated circuit platform and requires no off-chip optical I/O. Our proposed processing system could find use in emerging applications, including cognitive radio and low-latency control.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Simpel: Circuit model for photonic spike processing laser neurons,” Opt. Express. 23, 8029–8044 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sorrentino, C. Quintero-Quiroz, A. Aragoneses, M. C. Torrent, and C. Masoller, “Effects of periodic forcing on the temporally correlated spikes of a semiconductor laser with feedback,” Opt. Express 23, 5571–5581 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 10202–10209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Broadcast and weight: An integrated network for scalable photonic spike processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 3427–3439 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Vandoorne, P. Mechet, T. Van Vaerenbergh, M. Fiers, G. Morthier, D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3541 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8, 937-942 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. A. Merolla, J. V. Arthur, R. Alvarez-Icaza, A. S. Cassidy, J. Sawada, F. Akopyan, B. L. Jackson, N. Imam, C. Guo, Y. Nakamura, B. Brezzo, I. Vo, S. K. Esser, R. Appuswamy, B. Taba, A. Amir, M. D. Flickner, W. P. Risk, R. Manohar, and D. S. Modha, “A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface,” Science 345, 668–673 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Selmi, R. Braive, G. Beau, I. Sagnes, R. Kuszelewicz, and S. Barbay, “Relative refractory period in an excitable semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 183902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

M. Turconi, B. Garbin, M. Feyereisen, M. Giudici, and S. Barland, “Control of excitable pulses in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. E 88, 022923 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, A. N. Tait, and P. R. Prucnal, “A leaky integrate-and-fire laser neuron for ultrafast cognitive computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Romeira, J. Javaloyes, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, S. Balle, and O. Piro, “Excitability and optical pulse generation in semiconductor lasers driven by resonant tunneling diode photo-detectors,” Opt. Express 21, 20931–20940 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. Alexander, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Excitation transfer between optically injected microdisk lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 28922–28932 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brunner, M. C. Soriano, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Parallel photonic information processing at gigabyte per second data rates using transient states,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1364 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

W. Coomans, L. Gelens, S. Beri, J. Danckaert, and G. Van der Sande, “Solitary and coupled semiconductor ring lasers as optical spiking neurons,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 036209 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Appeltant, M. C. Soriano, G. Van der Sande, J. Danckaert, S. Massar, J. Dambre, B. Schrauwen, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Information processing using a single dynamical node as complex system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Beri, L. Mashall, L. Gelens, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Excitability in optical systems close to z2-symmetry,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Are optical transistors the logical next step?”; Nat. Photonics 4, 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3, 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Fang, M. Sysak, B. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. hao Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, Y.-h. Kuo, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Liang, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent devices,” Mater. Today 10, 28–35 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid algainas-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 15, 6044–6052 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. Krauskopf, K. Schneider, J. Sieber, S. Wieczorek, and M. Wolfrum, “Excitability and self-pulsations near homoclinic bifurcations in semiconductor laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 215, 367–379 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

C. Juang, T. Hwang, J. Juang, and W.-W. Lin, “A synchronization scheme using self-pulsating laser diodes in optical chaotic communication,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 300–304 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Boahen, “Point-to-point connectivity between neuromorphic chips using address events,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 47, 416–434 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. L. A. Dubbeldam, B. Krauskopf, and D. Lenstra, “Excitability and coherence resonance in lasers with saturable absorber,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6580–6588 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. Destexhe, Z. F. Mainen, and T. J. Sejnowski, “Kinetic models of synaptic transmission,” Methods Neuro. Modeling 2, 1–25 (1998).

S. P. Strong, R. Koberle, R. R. de Ruyter van Steveninck, and W. Bialek, “Entropy and information in neural spike trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 197–200 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W. Maass, “Networks of spiking neurons: The third generation of neural network models,” Neural Networks 10, 1659–1671 (1997).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[Crossref]

Akopyan, F.

P. A. Merolla, J. V. Arthur, R. Alvarez-Icaza, A. S. Cassidy, J. Sawada, F. Akopyan, B. L. Jackson, N. Imam, C. Guo, Y. Nakamura, B. Brezzo, I. Vo, S. K. Esser, R. Appuswamy, B. Taba, A. Amir, M. D. Flickner, W. P. Risk, R. Manohar, and D. S. Modha, “A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface,” Science 345, 668–673 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexander, K.

Alvarez-Icaza, R.

P. A. Merolla, J. V. Arthur, R. Alvarez-Icaza, A. S. Cassidy, J. Sawada, F. Akopyan, B. L. Jackson, N. Imam, C. Guo, Y. Nakamura, B. Brezzo, I. Vo, S. K. Esser, R. Appuswamy, B. Taba, A. Amir, M. D. Flickner, W. P. Risk, R. Manohar, and D. S. Modha, “A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface,” Science 345, 668–673 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amir, A.

P. A. Merolla, J. V. Arthur, R. Alvarez-Icaza, A. S. Cassidy, J. Sawada, F. Akopyan, B. L. Jackson, N. Imam, C. Guo, Y. Nakamura, B. Brezzo, I. Vo, S. K. Esser, R. Appuswamy, B. Taba, A. Amir, M. D. Flickner, W. P. Risk, R. Manohar, and D. S. Modha, “A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface,” Science 345, 668–673 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appeltant, L.

L. Larger, M. C. Soriano, D. Brunner, L. Appeltant, J. M. Gutiérrez, L. Pesquera, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Photonic information processing beyond turing: an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing,” Opt. Express 20, 3241–3249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Appeltant, M. C. Soriano, G. Van der Sande, J. Danckaert, S. Massar, J. Dambre, B. Schrauwen, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Information processing using a single dynamical node as complex system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appuswamy, R.

P. A. Merolla, J. V. Arthur, R. Alvarez-Icaza, A. S. Cassidy, J. Sawada, F. Akopyan, B. L. Jackson, N. Imam, C. Guo, Y. Nakamura, B. Brezzo, I. Vo, S. K. Esser, R. Appuswamy, B. Taba, A. Amir, M. D. Flickner, W. P. Risk, R. Manohar, and D. S. Modha, “A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface,” Science 345, 668–673 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aragoneses, A.

Arthur, J. V.

P. A. Merolla, J. V. Arthur, R. Alvarez-Icaza, A. S. Cassidy, J. Sawada, F. Akopyan, B. L. Jackson, N. Imam, C. Guo, Y. Nakamura, B. Brezzo, I. Vo, S. K. Esser, R. Appuswamy, B. Taba, A. Amir, M. D. Flickner, W. P. Risk, R. Manohar, and D. S. Modha, “A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface,” Science 345, 668–673 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3, 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balle, S.

Barbay, S.

F. Selmi, R. Braive, G. Beau, I. Sagnes, R. Kuszelewicz, and S. Barbay, “Relative refractory period in an excitable semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 183902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barland, S.

M. Turconi, B. Garbin, M. Feyereisen, M. Giudici, and S. Barland, “Control of excitable pulses in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. E 88, 022923 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beau, G.

F. Selmi, R. Braive, G. Beau, I. Sagnes, R. Kuszelewicz, and S. Barbay, “Relative refractory period in an excitable semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 183902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beri, S.

W. Coomans, L. Gelens, S. Beri, J. Danckaert, and G. Van der Sande, “Solitary and coupled semiconductor ring lasers as optical spiking neurons,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 036209 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Beri, L. Mashall, L. Gelens, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Excitability in optical systems close to z2-symmetry,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bialek, W.

S. P. Strong, R. Koberle, R. R. de Ruyter van Steveninck, and W. Bialek, “Entropy and information in neural spike trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 197–200 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

K. Vandoorne, P. Mechet, T. Van Vaerenbergh, M. Fiers, G. Morthier, D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3541 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. Alexander, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Excitation transfer between optically injected microdisk lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 28922–28932 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blondel, M.

Blow, E.

A. Tait, M. Nahmias, T. Ferreira de Lima, B. Shastri, A. Wu, E. Zhou, E. Blow, and P. Prucnal, “Continuous control of microring weight banks,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC),” (IEEE, 2015).

Boahen, K.

K. Boahen, “Point-to-point connectivity between neuromorphic chips using address events,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 47, 416–434 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bois, G.

S. Le Beux, J. Trajkovic, I. O’Connor, G. Nicolescu, G. Bois, and P. Paulin, “Optical ring network-on-chip (ORNoC): Architecture and design methodology,” in “Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), 2011,” (2011), pp. 1–6.

Bowers, J.

A. Fang, M. Sysak, B. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. hao Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 10202–10209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3, 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid algainas-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 15, 6044–6052 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, Y.-h. Kuo, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Liang, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent devices,” Mater. Today 10, 28–35 (2007).
[Crossref]

Braive, R.

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A. W. Fang, H. Park, Y.-h. Kuo, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Liang, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent devices,” Mater. Today 10, 28–35 (2007).
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H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid algainas-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 15, 6044–6052 (2007).
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S. Le Beux, J. Trajkovic, I. O’Connor, G. Nicolescu, G. Bois, and P. Paulin, “Optical ring network-on-chip (ORNoC): Architecture and design methodology,” in “Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), 2011,” (2011), pp. 1–6.

Pesquera, L.

Pieroux, D.

Piro, O.

Preston, K.

K. Preston, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Levy, and M. Lipson, “Performance guidelines for wdm interconnects based on silicon microring resonators,” in “2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)” (OSA, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Prucnal, P.

A. Tait, M. Nahmias, T. Ferreira de Lima, B. Shastri, A. Wu, E. Zhou, E. Blow, and P. Prucnal, “Continuous control of microring weight banks,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC),” (IEEE, 2015).

Prucnal, P. R.

B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Simpel: Circuit model for photonic spike processing laser neurons,” Opt. Express. 23, 8029–8044 (2015).
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A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Broadcast and weight: An integrated network for scalable photonic spike processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 3427–3439 (2014).
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M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, A. N. Tait, and P. R. Prucnal, “A leaky integrate-and-fire laser neuron for ultrafast cognitive computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1–12 (2013).
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M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “An evanescent hybrid silicon laser neuron,” in “Photonics Conference (IPC)” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 93–94.

M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “A receiver-less link for excitable laser neurons: Design and simulation,” in Summer Topicals (IEEE/OSA, 2015), pp. 99-100 .
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B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, A. W. Rodriguez, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Dynamical laser spike processing,” arXiv1507.06713 (2015).

A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, Y. Tian, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Photonic neuromorphic signal processing and computing,” in Nanophotonic Information Physics, M. Naruse, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2014), pp. 183–222.
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Raday, O.

A. Fang, M. Sysak, B. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. hao Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
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H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid algainas-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 15, 6044–6052 (2007).
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Rodriguez, A. W.

B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, A. W. Rodriguez, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Dynamical laser spike processing,” arXiv1507.06713 (2015).

Roelkens, G.

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3, 1782–1802 (2010).
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B. Krauskopf, K. Schneider, J. Sieber, S. Wieczorek, and M. Wolfrum, “Excitability and self-pulsations near homoclinic bifurcations in semiconductor laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 215, 367–379 (2003).
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K. Vandoorne, P. Mechet, T. Van Vaerenbergh, M. Fiers, G. Morthier, D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3541 (2014).
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L. Appeltant, M. C. Soriano, G. Van der Sande, J. Danckaert, S. Massar, J. Dambre, B. Schrauwen, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Information processing using a single dynamical node as complex system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 468 (2011).
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Sejnowski, T. J.

A. Destexhe, Z. F. Mainen, and T. J. Sejnowski, “Kinetic models of synaptic transmission,” Methods Neuro. Modeling 2, 1–25 (1998).

Selmi, F.

F. Selmi, R. Braive, G. Beau, I. Sagnes, R. Kuszelewicz, and S. Barbay, “Relative refractory period in an excitable semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 183902 (2014).
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A. Tait, M. Nahmias, T. Ferreira de Lima, B. Shastri, A. Wu, E. Zhou, E. Blow, and P. Prucnal, “Continuous control of microring weight banks,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC),” (IEEE, 2015).

Shastri, B. J.

B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Simpel: Circuit model for photonic spike processing laser neurons,” Opt. Express. 23, 8029–8044 (2015).
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A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Broadcast and weight: An integrated network for scalable photonic spike processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 3427–3439 (2014).
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M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, A. N. Tait, and P. R. Prucnal, “A leaky integrate-and-fire laser neuron for ultrafast cognitive computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1–12 (2013).
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M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “An evanescent hybrid silicon laser neuron,” in “Photonics Conference (IPC)” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 93–94.

M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “A receiver-less link for excitable laser neurons: Design and simulation,” in Summer Topicals (IEEE/OSA, 2015), pp. 99-100 .
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B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, A. W. Rodriguez, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Dynamical laser spike processing,” arXiv1507.06713 (2015).

A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, Y. Tian, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Photonic neuromorphic signal processing and computing,” in Nanophotonic Information Physics, M. Naruse, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2014), pp. 183–222.
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Sherwood-Droz, N.

K. Preston, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Levy, and M. Lipson, “Performance guidelines for wdm interconnects based on silicon microring resonators,” in “2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)” (OSA, 2011), pp. 1–2.

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B. Krauskopf, K. Schneider, J. Sieber, S. Wieczorek, and M. Wolfrum, “Excitability and self-pulsations near homoclinic bifurcations in semiconductor laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 215, 367–379 (2003).
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S. Beri, L. Mashall, L. Gelens, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Excitability in optical systems close to z2-symmetry,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 739–743 (2010).
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D. Brunner, M. C. Soriano, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Parallel photonic information processing at gigabyte per second data rates using transient states,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1364 (2013).
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Sysak, M. N.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid algainas-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 15, 6044–6052 (2007).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, Y.-h. Kuo, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Liang, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent devices,” Mater. Today 10, 28–35 (2007).
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A. Tait, M. Nahmias, T. Ferreira de Lima, B. Shastri, A. Wu, E. Zhou, E. Blow, and P. Prucnal, “Continuous control of microring weight banks,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC),” (IEEE, 2015).

Tait, A. N.

B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Simpel: Circuit model for photonic spike processing laser neurons,” Opt. Express. 23, 8029–8044 (2015).
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A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Broadcast and weight: An integrated network for scalable photonic spike processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 3427–3439 (2014).
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M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, A. N. Tait, and P. R. Prucnal, “A leaky integrate-and-fire laser neuron for ultrafast cognitive computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1–12 (2013).
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M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “An evanescent hybrid silicon laser neuron,” in “Photonics Conference (IPC)” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 93–94.

M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “A receiver-less link for excitable laser neurons: Design and simulation,” in Summer Topicals (IEEE/OSA, 2015), pp. 99-100 .
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A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, Y. Tian, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Photonic neuromorphic signal processing and computing,” in Nanophotonic Information Physics, M. Naruse, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2014), pp. 183–222.
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B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, A. W. Rodriguez, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Dynamical laser spike processing,” arXiv1507.06713 (2015).

Takata, K.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8, 937-942 (2014).
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Tian, Y.

A. N. Tait, M. A. Nahmias, Y. Tian, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Photonic neuromorphic signal processing and computing,” in Nanophotonic Information Physics, M. Naruse, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2014), pp. 183–222.
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Trajkovic, J.

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Van der Sande, G.

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S. Beri, L. Mashall, L. Gelens, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Excitability in optical systems close to z2-symmetry,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 739–743 (2010).
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K. Vandoorne, P. Mechet, T. Van Vaerenbergh, M. Fiers, G. Morthier, D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3541 (2014).
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K. Vandoorne, P. Mechet, T. Van Vaerenbergh, M. Fiers, G. Morthier, D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3541 (2014).
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S. Beri, L. Mashall, L. Gelens, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Excitability in optical systems close to z2-symmetry,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 739–743 (2010).
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K. Vandoorne, P. Mechet, T. Van Vaerenbergh, M. Fiers, G. Morthier, D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3541 (2014).
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P. A. Merolla, J. V. Arthur, R. Alvarez-Icaza, A. S. Cassidy, J. Sawada, F. Akopyan, B. L. Jackson, N. Imam, C. Guo, Y. Nakamura, B. Brezzo, I. Vo, S. K. Esser, R. Appuswamy, B. Taba, A. Amir, M. D. Flickner, W. P. Risk, R. Manohar, and D. S. Modha, “A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface,” Science 345, 668–673 (2014).
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Wang, Z.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8, 937-942 (2014).
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B. Krauskopf, K. Schneider, J. Sieber, S. Wieczorek, and M. Wolfrum, “Excitability and self-pulsations near homoclinic bifurcations in semiconductor laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 215, 367–379 (2003).
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B. Krauskopf, K. Schneider, J. Sieber, S. Wieczorek, and M. Wolfrum, “Excitability and self-pulsations near homoclinic bifurcations in semiconductor laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 215, 367–379 (2003).
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Wu, B.

B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Simpel: Circuit model for photonic spike processing laser neurons,” Opt. Express. 23, 8029–8044 (2015).
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B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, A. W. Rodriguez, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Dynamical laser spike processing,” arXiv1507.06713 (2015).

Yamamoto, Y.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8, 937-942 (2014).
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K. Vandoorne, P. Mechet, T. Van Vaerenbergh, M. Fiers, G. Morthier, D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3541 (2014).
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A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8, 937-942 (2014).
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B. J. Shastri, M. A. Nahmias, A. N. Tait, B. Wu, and P. R. Prucnal, “Simpel: Circuit model for photonic spike processing laser neurons,” Opt. Express. 23, 8029–8044 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A general depiction of a processor in a SNN. Input channels are weighted by wi, where they are summed together into a dynamical system (the neuron), which outputs its own set of spikes. (b) Concept of a photonic spike processor. Inputs are wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) channels on a single input channel. The spectral filter provides the weighted sum of inputs, which are summed together and drive a single excitable laser. The laser emits its a set of its own pulses into the network.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (Top) A depiction of an LIF neuron with a synaptic variable, embedded within a network. (Bottom) A schematic of the proposed laser neuron, complete with filters, balanced photodetectors, and an excitable laser. In this model, only the excitatory photodetector pathway is investigated.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cross section of the device and full modeling structure for the hybrid silicon/III-V laser neuron (inhibitory photodetector not included). A series of pulses along n different wavelength channels λ1λN are spectrally filtered (i.e. weighted). This results in an excitatory photodetector current response, which propagates into the equivalent circuit depicted above. The interaction between the photons in the cavity, gain and SA sections are modeled using rate equations. The resulting output power along wavelength λj becomes the input to other neurons in a given network.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation of the response of the processing network node at each step. (a) Input WDM spike signals coming from the broadcast waveguide with FWHM = 40 ps. Trace color indicates the carrier wavelength of each pulse. (b) Transmission of spectrum of the weight bank filter (dotted lines) and input signal power spectra (solid curves). Input signals are assumed to be at the transform limit for 10 ps pulses. (c) WDM signals after transmission through the filter bank. Pulses on the same wavelength channel acquire the same weight and are then detected. (d) Electronic current signal, ie(t), that modulates the laser neuron after traversing the parasitic circuit model in Fig. 3. Pulses are low pass filtered to FWHM = 56 ps after traveling through device parasitics.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated internal dynamics of the laser neuron in response to the modulation signal in Fig 4.d. (a) input electrical modulation ie(t) (black line) causes the release of a large optical pulse near 6ns (red line). Inset shows the magnified output spike, which is approximately a sech2 pulse with FWHM=16.5 ps. (b) Simulated carrier densities in both the gain (blue line) and saturable absorption (purple line) sections of the laser. The dashed line represents the transparency carrier density, n0.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Hybrid/III-V Laser Parameters

Equations (20)

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T ( δ ) = 1 1 + δ 2 , where δ = Q ω 0 ( ω ω 0 )
B ( λ , t ) = i S o u t [ i ] ( λ , t )
S i n [ j ] ( λ , t ) = i T i j ( λ ) S o u t [ i ] ( λ , t )
i p [ j ] ( t ) = i λ R λ { T i j ( λ ) S o u t [ i ] ( λ , t ) } d λ
i p [ j ] ( t ) i R P D T i j ( λ i ) P o u t [ i ] ( t )
i e ( t ) = F { i p ( t ) }
d s d t = s τ + I ( t )
G ˙ ( t ) = γ G [ A G ( t ) G ( t ) I ( t ) ] + θ ( t )
Q ˙ ( t ) = γ Q [ B Q ( t ) a Q ( t ) I ( t ) ]
I ˙ ( t ) = γ I [ G ( t ) Q ( t ) 1 ] I ( t ) + ε f ( G )
d G ( t ) d t = γ G ( G ( t ) A ) + θ ( t ) ;
if G ( t ) > G thresh then release a pulse, and set G ( t ) G reset
g ˜ ( n g [ j ] ) = Γ v g g 0 n 0 ( n g [ j ] n 0 )
α ˜ ( n α [ j ] ) = Γ v g g 0 n 0 ( n 0 n α [ j ] )
d N p h [ j ] d t = [ g ˜ ( n g [ j ] ) α ˜ ( n α [ j ] ) 1 τ p h ] N p h [ j ] + g ˜ ( n g [ j ] ) n s V g
d n g [ j ] d t = I g [ j ] + i e [ j ] ( t ) e V g n g [ j ] τ g g ˜ ( n g [ j ] ) N p h [ j ] V g
d n α [ j ] d t = n α [ j ] τ α + α ˜ ( n α [ j ] ) N p h [ j ] V α
P o u t [ j ] ( t ) = η c τ p h h c λ j N p h [ j ] ( t )
( Δ λ ) 2 ( δ λ B ) 2 + ( δ λ T ) 2 + ( δ λ C ) 2 + ( δ λ F ) 2
C f G λ δ λ

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