Abstract

A real-mode depth-fused display is proposed by employing an integral imaging method in the depth-fused display system with viewer tracking. By giving depth-fusing effect between a transparent display and a floated planar two-dimensional image generated by the real-mode integral imaging method, a three-dimensional image is generated in front of the display plane unlike conventional depth-fused displays. The viewing angle of the system is expanded with a viewer tracking method. In addition, dynamic vertical and horizontal motion parallax can be given according to the tracked position of the viewer. As the depth-fusing effect is not dependent on the viewing distance, accommodation cue and motion parallax are provided for a wide range of viewing position. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed method by experimental system.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 60 (2015).

R. Narain, R. A. Albert, A. Bulbul, G. J. Ward, M. S. Banks, and J. F. O’Brien, “Optimal presentation of imagery with focus cues on multi-plane displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 59 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Xiong, Q.-H. Wang, S.-L. Li, H. Deng, and C.-C. Ji, “Partially-overlapped viewing zone based integral imaging system with super wide viewing angle,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22268–22277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today 66(4), 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-G. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with improved viewing characteristics,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28758–28770 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Integral volumetric imaging using decentered elemental lenses,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25902–25913 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360̊ light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Kakeya and Y. Arakawa, “Autostereoscopic display with real-image virtual screen and light filters,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 349–357 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologramlike video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[Crossref]

Akeley, K.

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Albert, R. A.

R. Narain, R. A. Albert, A. Bulbul, G. J. Ward, M. S. Banks, and J. F. O’Brien, “Optimal presentation of imagery with focus cues on multi-plane displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ando, H.

Arakawa, Y.

H. Kakeya and Y. Arakawa, “Autostereoscopic display with real-image virtual screen and light filters,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 349–357 (2002).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

R. Narain, R. A. Albert, A. Bulbul, G. J. Ward, M. S. Banks, and J. F. O’Brien, “Optimal presentation of imagery with focus cues on multi-plane displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 59 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360̊ light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bulbul, A.

R. Narain, R. A. Albert, A. Bulbul, G. J. Ward, M. S. Banks, and J. F. O’Brien, “Optimal presentation of imagery with focus cues on multi-plane displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Busch, J.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 60 (2015).

Chen, N.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

A. Maimone, R. Chen, H. Fuchs, R. Raskar, and G. Wetzstein, “Wide field of view compressive light field display using a multilayer architecture and tracked viewers,” SID Symp. Digest Tech. Papers45, 509–512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360̊ light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deng, H.

Diverdi, S.

C. Lee, S. Diverdi, and T. Höllerer, “Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(1), 20–33 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuchs, H.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, R. Chen, H. Fuchs, R. Raskar, and G. Wetzstein, “Wide field of view compressive light field display using a multilayer architecture and tracked viewers,” SID Symp. Digest Tech. Papers45, 509–512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Girshick, A. R.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Höllerer, T.

C. Lee, S. Diverdi, and T. Höllerer, “Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(1), 20–33 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honda, T.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologramlike video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.-Y.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.

G. Park, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Multi-viewer tracking integral imaging system and its viewing zone analysis,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17895–17908 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Effect of viewing region satisfying super multi-view condition in integral imaging,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers43, 883–886 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hua, H.

Huang, F.

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 60 (2015).

Jeong, Y.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-G. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with improved viewing characteristics,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28758–28770 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, C.-C.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360̊ light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jung, J.-H.

Kajiki, Y.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologramlike video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kakeya, H.

Kanade, T.

B. D. Lucas and T. Kanade, “An iterative image registrattion technique with an application to stereo vision,” in Int. Joint Conf. Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) (1981), pp. 121–130.

Kashiwada, S.

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, J.

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-K.

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-H.

Kwon, Y. M.

Lanman, D.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today 66(4), 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-G. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with improved viewing characteristics,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28758–28770 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Park, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Multi-viewer tracking integral imaging system and its viewing zone analysis,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17895–17908 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Effect of viewing region satisfying super multi-view condition in integral imaging,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers43, 883–886 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, S. Diverdi, and T. Höllerer, “Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(1), 20–33 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.-L.

Liu, J.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Lucas, B. D.

B. D. Lucas and T. Kanade, “An iterative image registrattion technique with an application to stereo vision,” in Int. Joint Conf. Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) (1981), pp. 121–130.

Maimone, A.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, R. Chen, H. Fuchs, R. Raskar, and G. Wetzstein, “Wide field of view compressive light field display using a multilayer architecture and tracked viewers,” SID Symp. Digest Tech. Papers45, 509–512 (2014).
[Crossref]

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360̊ light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Min, S.-W.

G. Park, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Multi-viewer tracking integral imaging system and its viewing zone analysis,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17895–17908 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nagano, K.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nago, N.

Nakamura, K.

Narain, R.

R. Narain, R. A. Albert, A. Bulbul, G. J. Ward, M. S. Banks, and J. F. O’Brien, “Optimal presentation of imagery with focus cues on multi-plane displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 59 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. F.

R. Narain, R. A. Albert, A. Bulbul, G. J. Ward, M. S. Banks, and J. F. O’Brien, “Optimal presentation of imagery with focus cues on multi-plane displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, G.

Park, S.

S. Park, J. Yeom, Y. Jeong, N. Chen, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 37–46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-G.

Raskar, R.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, R. Chen, H. Fuchs, R. Raskar, and G. Wetzstein, “Wide field of view compressive light field display using a multilayer architecture and tracked viewers,” SID Symp. Digest Tech. Papers45, 509–512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ravikumar, S.

Sakai, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawada, S.

Son, J.-Y.

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takaki, Y.

Uehira, K.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urano, Y.

Wang, Q.-H.

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (5169 KB)      Tracking of the observer and image response according ot the tracked viewer's position
» Visualization 2: MOV (12175 KB)      Experimental result

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration of the proposed system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Concept of the compensation for the base images along with the viewer’s off-axis position.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Geometry of the viewing angle for the shifted elemental image.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Span of viewing angle according to the viewing direction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Coverage angle for binocular condition.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Criteria for viewing angle.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Preparation of source image: (a) procedure of image processing for the proposed system, (b) sample images for two different viewing directions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Saturation and value of the front and rear base images for a specific pixel S0 and I0. The relationship Sf:Sr = z:(1-z) and (1-If):(1-Ir) = z:(1-z) are satisfied for the front and rear pixel values.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Perspective view images of the experimental object.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Configuration of the experimental setup: (a) schematic diagram of the experimental setup, (b) photograph of the experimental setup observed from the rear side.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Tracking of the observer and image response according to the tracked viewer’s position. According to the detected viewer’s position, front elemental image is shifted and the parallax is provided (Visualization 1).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Experimental result of the proposed system at the viewer’s position: (a) left, (b) central, and (c) right viewpoint. Change of the parallax is shown within the viewing zone (Visualization 2).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Specification of the experimental system

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Table 2 Comparison of viewing parameters for DFD, integral imaging, and proposed method

Equations (4)

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Ω s =arctan( s+ p l /2 g )arctan( s p l /2 g ),
Ω c = 1 2 [ arctan( s+ p l /2 g )+arctan( s p l /2 g ) ].
Ω cv =2 tan 1 I PD 2D ,
I f (x,y)=1z(x,y)×{1 I 0 (x,y)}, S f (x,y)= S 0 (x,y)×z(x,y), I r (x,y)=1{1z(x,y)}×{1 I 0 (x,y)}, S r (x,y)= S 0 (x,y)×{1z(x,y)},

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