Abstract

We present a general algorithm for combining measurements taken under various illumination and imaging conditions to quantitatively extract the amplitude and phase of an object wave. The algorithm uses the weak object transfer function, which incorporates arbitrary pupil functions and partially coherent illumination. The approach is extended beyond the weak object regime using an iterative algorithm. We demonstrate the method on measurements of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) multilayer mask defects taken in an EUV zone plate microscope with both a standard zone plate lens and a zone plate implementing Zernike phase contrast.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).
  35. Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).
  36. Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).
  37. M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

2015 (2)

L. Tian and L. Waller, “Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging in an LED array microscope,” Opt. Express 23, 11394–11403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

2014 (1)

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

2013 (4)

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. C. Petruccelli, L. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “The transport of intensity equation for optical path length recovery using partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 21, 14430–14441 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

A. Garetto, J. Oster, M. Waiblinger, and K. Edinger, “Challenging defect repair techniques for maximizing mask repair yield,” Proc. SPIE 7488, 74880H (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

C. Chang, A. Sakdinawat, P. Fischer, E. Anderson, and D. Attwood, “Single-element objective lens for soft x-ray differential interference contrast microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1564–1566 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

R. Sheppard and D. K. Hamilton, “Differential phase contrast in scanning optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 133, 27–39 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–250 (1972).

1942 (1)

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9, 686–698 (1942).
[Crossref]

Acome, E.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Agour, M.

Allen, L. J.

A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allezy, A. P.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chang, A. Sakdinawat, P. Fischer, E. Anderson, and D. Attwood, “Single-element objective lens for soft x-ray differential interference contrast microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1564–1566 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

Barbastathis, G.

Baruchel, J.

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
[Crossref]

Benk, M.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
[Crossref]

Benk, M. P.

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

Bergmann, R. B.

Boistel, R.

Bowers, C. W.

Bret, T.

R. Jonckheere, T. Bret, D. Van den Heuvel, J. Magana, W. Gao, and M. Waiblinger, “Repair of natural EUV reticle defects,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81661G (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

Chao, W.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

Chao, W. L.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.-R.

A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claus, R. A.

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
[Crossref]

Z. Jingshan, L. Tian, R. A. Claus, J. Dauwels, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Phase Recovery by Kalman Filtering,” in “Frontiers in Optics 2013 Postdeadline,” (OSA, 2013), p. FW6A.9.

Cloetens, P.

J. P. Guigay, M. Langer, R. Boistel, and P. Cloetens, “Mixed transfer function and transport of intensity approach for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1617 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cordes, A.

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
[Crossref]

Cork, C. W.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cork, W.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dauwels, J.

Z. Jingshan, L. Tian, R. A. Claus, J. Dauwels, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Phase Recovery by Kalman Filtering,” in “Frontiers in Optics 2013 Postdeadline,” (OSA, 2013), p. FW6A.9.

Davis, T. J.

Dean, B. H.

Delano, R.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Depeursinge, C.

DePonte, J. C.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

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M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

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A. Garetto, J. Oster, M. Waiblinger, and K. Edinger, “Challenging defect repair techniques for maximizing mask repair yield,” Proc. SPIE 7488, 74880H (2009).
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A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

Goldberg, K. A.

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
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R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
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M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
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A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

Johnson, D. G.

M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

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R. Jonckheere, T. Bret, D. Van den Heuvel, J. Magana, W. Gao, and M. Waiblinger, “Repair of natural EUV reticle defects,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81661G (2011).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
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Kinoshita, H.

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
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Kou, S. S.

Kwon, H. J.

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
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Liang, T.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

Ludwig, W.

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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R. Jonckheere, T. Bret, D. Van den Heuvel, J. Magana, W. Gao, and M. Waiblinger, “Repair of natural EUV reticle defects,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81661G (2011).
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A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, E.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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Mir, M.

Miyakawa, R.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

Miyakawa, R. H.

M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

Mochi, I.

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
[Crossref]

Naulleau, P.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
[Crossref]

Naulleau, P. P.

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Neureuther, A.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
[Crossref]

Neureuther, A. R.

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oster, J.

A. Garetto, J. Oster, M. Waiblinger, and K. Edinger, “Challenging defect repair techniques for maximizing mask repair yield,” Proc. SPIE 7488, 74880H (2009).
[Crossref]

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Petruccelli, J. C.

Pogany, A.

Ponda, S.

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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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Sakdinawat, A.

Salmassi, F.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–250 (1972).

Schlenker, M.

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schulz, T. J.

Seldin, J. H.

Sheppard, C. J.

S. B. Mehta and C. J. Sheppard, “Transfer Function Analysis of Partially Coherent Phase Imaging Methods and Evaluation for Quantitative Imaging,” in “Frontiers in Optics 2013 Postdeadline,” (OSA, 2009).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Sheppard, R.

R. Sheppard and D. K. Hamilton, “Differential phase contrast in scanning optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 133, 27–39 (1984).
[Crossref]

Teki, R.

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
[Crossref]

Tian, L.

Tsang, M.

Unarunotai, S.

Van Camp, D.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van den Heuvel, D.

R. Jonckheere, T. Bret, D. Van den Heuvel, J. Magana, W. Gao, and M. Waiblinger, “Repair of natural EUV reticle defects,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81661G (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Dyck, D.

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
[Crossref]

Van Every, E.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Landuyt, J.

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vytla, V. K.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waiblinger, M.

R. Jonckheere, T. Bret, D. Van den Heuvel, J. Magana, W. Gao, and M. Waiblinger, “Repair of natural EUV reticle defects,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81661G (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Garetto, J. Oster, M. Waiblinger, and K. Edinger, “Challenging defect repair techniques for maximizing mask repair yield,” Proc. SPIE 7488, 74880H (2009).
[Crossref]

Waller, L.

L. Tian and L. Waller, “Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging in an LED array microscope,” Opt. Express 23, 11394–11403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Waller, M. Tsang, S. Ponda, S. Y. Yang, and G. Barbastathis, “Phase and amplitude imaging from noisy images by Kalman filtering,” Opt. Express 19, 2805–2814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Kou, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Quantitative phase restoration by direct inversion using the optical transfer function,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2671–2673 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Waller, S. S. Kou, C. J. R. Sheppard, and G. Barbastathis, “Phase from chromatic aberrations,” Opt. Express 18, 22817–22825 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jingshan, L. Tian, R. A. Claus, J. Dauwels, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Phase Recovery by Kalman Filtering,” in “Frontiers in Optics 2013 Postdeadline,” (OSA, 2013), p. FW6A.9.

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wilkins, S. W.

Wojdyla, A.

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, Y.

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. Y.

Zehm, D.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9, 686–698 (1942).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

R. Sheppard and D. K. Hamilton, “Differential phase contrast in scanning optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 133, 27–39 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Nat. Photon. (1)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–250 (1972).

Physica (1)

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9, 686–698 (1942).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (7)

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9235, 92350L (2014).

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. G. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, M. Benk, A. Wojdyla, A. Donoghue, D. Johnson, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, T. Liang, and P. Naulleau, “Enhancing defect detection with Zernike phase contrast in EUV multilayer blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9422, 94221C (2015).

R. A. Claus, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, and P. P. Naulleau, “Recovering effective amplitude and phase roughness of EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 88802B (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kwon, J. Harris-Jones, R. Teki, A. Cordes, T. Nakajima, I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. Kinoshita, “Printability of Native Blank Defects and Programmed Defects and Their Stack Structures,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Jonckheere, T. Bret, D. Van den Heuvel, J. Magana, W. Gao, and M. Waiblinger, “Repair of natural EUV reticle defects,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81661G (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Garetto, J. Oster, M. Waiblinger, and K. Edinger, “Challenging defect repair techniques for maximizing mask repair yield,” Proc. SPIE 7488, 74880H (2009).
[Crossref]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. V. Martin, F.-R. Chen, W.-K. Hsieh, J.-J. Kai, S. D. Findlay, and L. J. Allen, “Spatial incoherence in phase retrieval based on focus variation,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 914–924 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, M. P. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, A. R. Neureuther, P. P. Naulleau, and L. Waller, “Phase measurements of EUV mask defects,” Proc. SPIE9422, 942217 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. A. Claus, Y.-G. Wang, M. Benk, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, A. Neureuther, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Quantitative Phase Retrieval for EUV Lithography,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics 2015,” (OSA, 2015), p. ITH2A.4.
[Crossref]

S. B. Mehta and C. J. Sheppard, “Transfer Function Analysis of Partially Coherent Phase Imaging Methods and Evaluation for Quantitative Imaging,” in “Frontiers in Optics 2013 Postdeadline,” (OSA, 2009).

M. P. Benk, R. H. Miyakawa, W. Chao, Y.-G. Wang, A. Wojdyla, D. G. Johnson, A. P. Donoghue, and K. A. Goldberg, “A broader view on EUV-masks: adding complementary imaging modes to the SHARP microscope,” Proc. SPIE9235, 92350K (2014).

H. H. Hopkins, “On the Diffraction Theory of Optical Images,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences217, 408–432 (1953).

Y.-G. Wang, R. Miyakawa, W. Chao, D. Johnson, A. Donoghue, A. Wojdyla, M. Benk, K. Goldberg, A. Neureuther, and P. Naulleau, “Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection,” 2014 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Washington DC, USA (2014).

S. B. Mehta and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Partially coherent image formation in Asymmetric Illumination-based Differential Phase Contrast (AIDPC) and phase-retrieval,” AIP Conference Proceedings1236, 289–294 (2010).

Z. Jingshan, L. Tian, R. A. Claus, J. Dauwels, and L. Waller, “Partially Coherent Phase Recovery by Kalman Filtering,” in “Frontiers in Optics 2013 Postdeadline,” (OSA, 2013), p. FW6A.9.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Iterative algorithm simulation for an object that does not obey the weak object approximation. A focus stack of 7 images, evenly spaced in the interval 1.7λ/NA2, were generated with partial coherence σ = 0.25. A defocused image (1.7±λ/NA2) is shown over a few iterations to illustrate the iterative correction. After one iteration, some error in the recovered phase and amplitude remains, but is mostly removed by the second iteration. The color scale of Is is offset by 1 to match that of I and Ia.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample measurements taken using the standard zone plate (top) and phase contrast zone plate (bottom). The defocus distance is indicated at the top, along with the real and imaginary transfer functions in frequency space for each image, with the NA marked by a dashed circle. The illumination is a disk source with σ = 0.25.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The recovered phase in degrees (top) and amplitude (bottom) are shown for the standard zone plate and phase contrast zone plate. The differences between the two estimates of the field are shown on the right, with an arbitrary offset.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = | E ( x ) e i f x P ( x x ) d x | 2 J ˜ ( f ) d f .
I = | [ ( 1 + E r e + i E i m ) e i f x ] * P | 2 J ˜ ( f ) d f .
I ˜ = [ ( δ ( f f ) P ˜ ( f ) + E r e ˜ ( f f ) P ˜ ( f ) + i E i m ˜ ( f f ) P ˜ ( f ) ) * ( δ ( f + f ) P ˜ * ( f ) + E r e ˜ ( f + f ) P ˜ * ( f ) i E i m ˜ ( f + f ) P ˜ * ( f ) ) ] J ˜ ( f ) d f ,
I ˜ = I 0 ˜ + I s ˜ + ( J ˜ ( f ) P ˜ ( f ) ) * ( E r e ˜ ( f ) P ˜ * ( f f ) i E i m ˜ ( f ) P ˜ * ( f f ) ) d f + ( E r e ˜ ( f ) P ˜ ( f + f ) + i E i m ˜ ( f ) P ˜ ( f + f ) ) * ( J ˜ ( f ) P ˜ * ( f ) ) d f ,
I ˜ = I 0 ˜ + E r e ˜ K r e ˜ + E i m ˜ K i m ˜ + I s ˜ ,
K r e ˜ = ( P ˜ J ˜ ) P ˜ + P ˜ ( P ˜ J ˜ )
K i m ˜ = ( P ˜ J ˜ ) P ˜ P ˜ ( P ˜ J ˜ ) .
I ˜ I 0 ˜ + E r e ˜ K r e ˜ + E i m ˜ K i m ˜
I ˜ I 0 ˜ + E r e * K r e + E i m * K i m .
[ I 1 ˜ ( f i ) I n ˜ ( f i ) ] = [ K r e 1 ˜ ( f i ) K r e n ˜ ( f i ) K i m 1 ˜ ( f i ) K i m n ˜ ( f i ) ] [ E r e ˜ ( f i ) E i m ˜ ( f i ) ] ,

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