Abstract

In an indoor bidirectional visible light communications (VLC), a line-of-sight (LOS) transmission plays a major role in obtaining adequate performance of a VLC system. Signals are often obstructed in the LOS transmission path, causing an effect called optical shadowing. In the absence of LOS, the performance of the VLC system degrades significantly and, in particular, at uplink transmission this degradation becomes severe due to design constraints and limited power at uplink devices. In this paper, a novel concept and design of an optical bidirectional beacon (OBB) is presented as an efficient model to counter the performance degradation in a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) VLC system. OBB is an independent operating bidirectional transceiver unit installed on walls, composed of red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors (PDs) and color filters. OBB improves the coverage area in the form of providing additional or alternate paths for transmission and enhances the performance of the VLC system in terms of bit error rate (BER). To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, simulations were carried out under optical shadowing conditions at various locations in an indoor environment. The simulation results and analysis show that the implementation of OBB improves the performance of the VLC system significantly, especially when the LOS bidirectional transmission paths are completely or partially obstructed.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15328–15334 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Visible light communication based motion detection,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18769–18776 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. T. Hussein and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Mobile multi-gigabit visible light communication system in realistic indoor environment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(15), 3293–3307 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Rajagopal, R. D. Roberts, and S. K. Lim, “IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 72–82 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Smart LED allocation scheme for efficient multiuser visible light communication networks,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13015–13024 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Novel user allocation scheme for full duplex multiuser bidirectional Li-Fi network,” Opt. Commun. 339, 153–156 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. V. Tiwari, A. Sewaiwar, and Y. H. Chung, “Color coded multiple access scheme for bidirectional multiuser visible light communications in smart home technologies,” Opt. Commun. 353, 1–5 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Is blue optical filter necessary in high speed phosphor-based white light LED visible light communications?” Opt. Express 22(17), 20646–20651 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, I Papakonstantinou, and W. Popoola, “Visible light communications: 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network equalizer in a low bandwidth white light configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(9), 1807–1813 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. P. Han, A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Color clustered multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19(1), 74–79 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” in International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC), Jeju, South Korea, 2012, pp. 149–154.
  15. Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Burton, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and S. K. Liaw, “Design and analysis of an angular-segmented full-mobility visible light communications receiver,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 591–599 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “A study of shadowing on indoor visible-light wireless communication utilizing plural white LED lightings,” in 1st International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, 2004, pp. 36–40.
  18. P. Chvojka, S. Zvanovec, P. A. Haigh, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Channel characteristics of visible light communications within dynamic indoor environment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(9), 1719–1725 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).
  20. K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Novel color-clustered multiuser visible light communication,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 579–590 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Kwonhyung, H. Park, and J. R. Barry, “Indoor channel characteristics for visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(2), 217–219 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. on Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2015 (7)

2014 (8)

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Novel color-clustered multiuser visible light communication,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 579–590 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Is blue optical filter necessary in high speed phosphor-based white light LED visible light communications?” Opt. Express 22(17), 20646–20651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, I Papakonstantinou, and W. Popoola, “Visible light communications: 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network equalizer in a low bandwidth white light configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(9), 1807–1813 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15328–15334 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Burton, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and S. K. Liaw, “Design and analysis of an angular-segmented full-mobility visible light communications receiver,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 591–599 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Rajagopal, R. D. Roberts, and S. K. Lim, “IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 72–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. Kwonhyung, H. Park, and J. R. Barry, “Indoor channel characteristics for visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(2), 217–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. on Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aslam, N.

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bandara, K.

K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Novel color-clustered multiuser visible light communication,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 579–590 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” in International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC), Jeju, South Korea, 2012, pp. 149–154.

Barry, J. R.

L. Kwonhyung, H. Park, and J. R. Barry, “Indoor channel characteristics for visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(2), 217–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bentley, E.

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burton, A.

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Burton, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and S. K. Liaw, “Design and analysis of an angular-segmented full-mobility visible light communications receiver,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 591–599 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, W.

Chi, N.

Chow, C. W.

Chowdhury, M. I. S.

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y. H.

S. V. Tiwari, A. Sewaiwar, and Y. H. Chung, “Color coded multiple access scheme for bidirectional multiuser visible light communications in smart home technologies,” Opt. Commun. 353, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Novel user allocation scheme for full duplex multiuser bidirectional Li-Fi network,” Opt. Commun. 339, 153–156 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. P. Han, A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Color clustered multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19(1), 74–79 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Smart LED allocation scheme for efficient multiuser visible light communication networks,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13015–13024 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Visible light communication based motion detection,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18769–18776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Novel color-clustered multiuser visible light communication,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 579–590 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” in International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC), Jeju, South Korea, 2012, pp. 149–154.

Chvojka, P.

Dawson, M. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

Faulkner, G.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Chvojka, S. Zvanovec, P. A. Haigh, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Channel characteristics of visible light communications within dynamic indoor environment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(9), 1719–1725 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Burton, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and S. K. Liaw, “Design and analysis of an angular-segmented full-mobility visible light communications receiver,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 591–599 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, I Papakonstantinou, and W. Popoola, “Visible light communications: 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network equalizer in a low bandwidth white light configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(9), 1807–1813 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haigh, P. A.

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, P. P.

Huang, X.

Hussein, A. T.

Jovicic, A.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kavehrad, M.

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Komine, T.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. on Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “A study of shadowing on indoor visible-light wireless communication utilizing plural white LED lightings,” in 1st International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, 2004, pp. 36–40.

Kwonhyung, L.

L. Kwonhyung, H. Park, and J. R. Barry, “Indoor channel characteristics for visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(2), 217–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Le Minh, H.

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liaw, S. K.

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Burton, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and S. K. Liaw, “Design and analysis of an angular-segmented full-mobility visible light communications receiver,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 591–599 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. K.

S. Rajagopal, R. D. Roberts, and S. K. Lim, “IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 72–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, M. M.

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

McKendry, J. J. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, M.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. on Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “A study of shadowing on indoor visible-light wireless communication utilizing plural white LED lightings,” in 1st International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, 2004, pp. 36–40.

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Papakonstantinou, I

Park, H.

L. Kwonhyung, H. Park, and J. R. Barry, “Indoor channel characteristics for visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(2), 217–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popoola, W.

Rajagopal, S.

S. Rajagopal, R. D. Roberts, and S. K. Lim, “IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 72–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

A. Burton, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and S. K. Liaw, “Design and analysis of an angular-segmented full-mobility visible light communications receiver,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 591–599 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, I Papakonstantinou, and W. Popoola, “Visible light communications: 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network equalizer in a low bandwidth white light configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(9), 1807–1813 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richardson, T.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roberts, R. D.

S. Rajagopal, R. D. Roberts, and S. K. Lim, “IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 72–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sewaiwar, A.

Sung, J. Y.

Tanga, X.

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

Tiwari, S. V.

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

Xiang, Y.

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

Yeh, C. H.

Yu, C.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, M.

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

Zhong, W. D.

Zvanovec, S.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

L. Kwonhyung, H. Park, and J. R. Barry, “Indoor channel characteristics for visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 15(2), 217–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Rajagopal, R. D. Roberts, and S. K. Lim, “IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 72–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µ LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Consum. Electron. (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. on Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

IET Circuit, Devices and Systems (1)

A. Burton, E. Bentley, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. Aslam, and S. K. Liaw, “Experimental demonstration of a 10BASE-T ethernet visible light communications system using white phosphor light-emitting diodes,” IET Circuit, Devices and Systems 8(4), 322–330 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. V. Tiwari, A. Sewaiwar, and Y. H. Chung, “Color coded multiple access scheme for bidirectional multiuser visible light communications in smart home technologies,” Opt. Commun. 353, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung, “Novel user allocation scheme for full duplex multiuser bidirectional Li-Fi network,” Opt. Commun. 339, 153–156 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Engineering (1)

Y. Xiang, M. Zhang, M. Kavehrad, M. I. S. Chowdhury, M. M. Liu, J. Wu, and X. Tanga, “Human shadowing effect on indoor visible light communications channel characteristics,” Opt. Engineering 53(8), 086113 (2014).

Opt. Express (5)

Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. (2)

K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Novel color-clustered multiuser visible light communication,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 579–590 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Burton, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and S. K. Liaw, “Design and analysis of an angular-segmented full-mobility visible light communications receiver,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 25(6), 591–599 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “A study of shadowing on indoor visible-light wireless communication utilizing plural white LED lightings,” in 1st International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, 2004, pp. 36–40.

K. Bandara and Y. H. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” in International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC), Jeju, South Korea, 2012, pp. 149–154.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical shadowing scenarios in an indoor VLC environment (a) without OBB. (b) with OBB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical bidirectional beacon (OBB) design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Indoor VLC environment with OBB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of OBB (a) Uplink. (b) Downlink.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Conventional optical shadowing models (a) R1. (b) R2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of illumination (a) R1. (b) R2. (c) OBB.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Downlink BER performance (a) R1. (b) R2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Uplink BER performance (a) R1. (b) R2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparative downlink BER performance for L1 with OSI values (a) 10%. (b) 30%. (c) 50%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparative downlink BER performance for L2 with OSI values (a) 10%. (b) 30%. (c) 50%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparative downlink BER performance for L3 with OSI values (a) 10%. (b) 30%. (c) 50%.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparative uplink BER performance for L1 with OSI values (a) 10%. (b) 30%. (c) 50%.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparative uplink BER performance for L2 with OSI values (a) 10%. (b) 30%. (c) 50%.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparative uplink BER performance for L3 with OSI values (a) 10%. (b) 30%. (c) 50%.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I ( ϕ ) + I ( ϕ b )
I ( ϕ ) = I r ( 0 ) cos m l ( ϕ )
m l = ln 2 / ln ( cos ( ϕ 1 / 2 ) )
I ( ϕ b ) = I b ( 0 ) cos m l ( ϕ b )
E h = I ( ϕ ) / D r 2 cos ( ψ ) + I ( ϕ b ) / D b 2 cos ( ψ b )
P b e a c o n ( t ) = R ( P r ( t ) H r ( 0 ) + P b ( t ) H b ( 0 ) )
H r ( 0 ) = { ( m l + 1 ) A 2 π D r 2 cos m l ( ϕ ) T s ( ψ ) ψ ψ F O V , ( 7 a ) 0 ψ > ψ F O V . ( 7 b )
H b ( 0 ) = { ( m l + 1 ) A 2 π D b 2 cos m l ( ϕ b ) T s ( ψ b ) cos ( ψ b ) ψ b ψ F O V , ( 8 a ) 0 ψ b > ψ F O V . ( 8 b )
P s h a d o w = [ 1 N s h a d o w 100 ] P max
S N R = P s h a d o w P N
P e = Q ( S N R )
Q ( x ) = 1 2 π x e y 2 / 2 d y

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