Abstract

The depth reflectivity profile of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is estimated from the inverse Fourier transform of the spectral interference signals (interferograms). As a result, the axial resolution is fundamentally limited by the coherence length of the light source. We demonstrate that using the autoregressive spectral estimation technique instead of the inverse Fourier transform, to analyze the spectral interferograms can improve the axial resolution. We name this method spectral estimation OCT (SE-OCT). SE-OCT breaks the coherence length limitation and improves the axial resolution by a factor of up to 4.7 compared with FD-OCT. Furthermore, SE-OCT provides complete sidelobe suppression in the depth point-spread function, further improving the image quality. We demonstrate that these technical advances enables clear identification of corneal endothelium anatomical details ex vivo that cannot be identified using the corresponding FD-OCT. Given that SE-OCT can be implemented in the FD-OCT devices without any hardware changes, the new capabilities provided by SE-OCT are likely to offer immediate improvements to the diagnosis and management of diseases based on OCT imaging.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

A. Boroomand, B. Tan, A. Wong, and K. Bizheva, “Axial resolution improvement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a depth-adaptive maximum-a-posterior framework,” Proc. SPIE 9312, 931241 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cui, X. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, S. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Gu, P. Shum, and L. Liu, “Dual spectrometer system with spectral compounding for 1-μm optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6727–6730 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Adhi and J. S. Duker, “Optical coherence tomography--current and future applications,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 24(3), 213–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. T. Tan, J. K. Dart, E. J. Holland, and S. Kinoshita, “Corneal transplantation,” Lancet 379(9827), 1749–1761 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bousi and C. Pitris, “Axial resolution improvement by modulated deconvolution in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071307 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Seck, Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Soh, “High resolution optical coherence tomography by ℓ1-optimization,” Opt. Commun. 284(7), 1752–1759 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Yardibi, J. Li, P. Stoica, M. Xue, and A. B. Baggeroer, “Source localization and sensing: a nonparametric iterative adaptive approach based on weighted least squares,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 46(1), 425–443 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Grover, R. K. Murthy, V. S. Brar, and K. V. Chalam, “Comparison of retinal thickness in normal eyes using Stratus and Spectralis optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2644–2647 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Watanabe, and M. Sato, “Application of the maximum entropy method to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for enhancing axial resolution,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5228–5236 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kulkarni, C. Thomas, and J. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33(16), 1365–1367 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

L. Jian and P. Stoica, “An adaptive filtering approach to spectral estimation and SAR imaging,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44(6), 1469–1484 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

R. O. Schmidt, “Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 34(3), 276–280 (1986).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

S. M. Kay and S. L. Marple., “Spectrum analysis: a modern perspective,” Proc. IEEE 69(11), 1380–1419 (1981).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. Capon, “High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis,” Proc. IEEE 57(8), 1408–1418 (1969).
[Crossref]

Adhi, M.

M. Adhi and J. S. Duker, “Optical coherence tomography--current and future applications,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 24(3), 213–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

Aretz, H. T.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baggeroer, A. B.

T. Yardibi, J. Li, P. Stoica, M. Xue, and A. B. Baggeroer, “Source localization and sensing: a nonparametric iterative adaptive approach based on weighted least squares,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 46(1), 425–443 (2010).
[Crossref]

Birket, S. E.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

A. Boroomand, B. Tan, A. Wong, and K. Bizheva, “Axial resolution improvement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a depth-adaptive maximum-a-posterior framework,” Proc. SPIE 9312, 931241 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boroomand, A.

A. Boroomand, B. Tan, A. Wong, and K. Bizheva, “Axial resolution improvement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a depth-adaptive maximum-a-posterior framework,” Proc. SPIE 9312, 931241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bousi, E.

E. Bousi and C. Pitris, “Axial resolution improvement by modulated deconvolution in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071307 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brar, V. S.

S. Grover, R. K. Murthy, V. S. Brar, and K. V. Chalam, “Comparison of retinal thickness in normal eyes using Stratus and Spectralis optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2644–2647 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byan-Parker, S.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capon, J.

J. Capon, “High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis,” Proc. IEEE 57(8), 1408–1418 (1969).
[Crossref]

Chalam, K. V.

S. Grover, R. K. Murthy, V. S. Brar, and K. V. Chalam, “Comparison of retinal thickness in normal eyes using Stratus and Spectralis optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2644–2647 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

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Nelson, J. S.

Nishioka, N. S.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pitris, C.

E. Bousi and C. Pitris, “Axial resolution improvement by modulated deconvolution in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071307 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowe, S. M.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Sato, M.

Sattmann, H.

Scherzer, E.

Schmidt, R. O.

R. O. Schmidt, “Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 34(3), 276–280 (1986).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seck, H. L.

H. L. Seck, Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Soh, “High resolution optical coherence tomography by ℓ1-optimization,” Opt. Commun. 284(7), 1752–1759 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shastry, S.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shum, P.

Soh, Y. C.

H. L. Seck, Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Soh, “High resolution optical coherence tomography by ℓ1-optimization,” Opt. Commun. 284(7), 1752–1759 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sorscher, E. J.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoica, P.

T. Yardibi, J. Li, P. Stoica, M. Xue, and A. B. Baggeroer, “Source localization and sensing: a nonparametric iterative adaptive approach based on weighted least squares,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 46(1), 425–443 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Jian and P. Stoica, “An adaptive filtering approach to spectral estimation and SAR imaging,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44(6), 1469–1484 (1996).
[Crossref]

Suter, M. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

Takano, M.

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, B.

A. Boroomand, B. Tan, A. Wong, and K. Bizheva, “Axial resolution improvement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a depth-adaptive maximum-a-posterior framework,” Proc. SPIE 9312, 931241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, D. T.

D. T. Tan, J. K. Dart, E. J. Holland, and S. Kinoshita, “Corneal transplantation,” Lancet 379(9827), 1749–1761 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, C.

M. Kulkarni, C. Thomas, and J. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33(16), 1365–1367 (1997).
[Crossref]

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tripathi, R.

Unterhuber, A.

Vakoc, B. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Watanabe, Y.

Wilsterman, E. J.

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, A.

A. Boroomand, B. Tan, A. Wong, and K. Bizheva, “Axial resolution improvement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a depth-adaptive maximum-a-posterior framework,” Proc. SPIE 9312, 931241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, M.

T. Yardibi, J. Li, P. Stoica, M. Xue, and A. B. Baggeroer, “Source localization and sensing: a nonparametric iterative adaptive approach based on weighted least squares,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 46(1), 425–443 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yardibi, T.

T. Yardibi, J. Li, P. Stoica, M. Xue, and A. B. Baggeroer, “Source localization and sensing: a nonparametric iterative adaptive approach based on weighted least squares,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 46(1), 425–443 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
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Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y.

H. L. Seck, Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Soh, “High resolution optical coherence tomography by ℓ1-optimization,” Opt. Commun. 284(7), 1752–1759 (2011).
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Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1)

L. Liu, S. Shastry, S. Byan-Parker, G. Houser, K. K Chu, S. E. Birket, C. M. Fernandez, J. A. Gardecki, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Wilsterman, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “An autoregulatory mechanism governing mucociliary transport is sensitive to mucus load,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51(4), 485–493 (2014).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Circulation (1)

I.-K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “In vivo characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by use of optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 111(12), 1551–1555 (2005).
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Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Adhi and J. S. Duker, “Optical coherence tomography--current and future applications,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 24(3), 213–221 (2013).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Kulkarni, C. Thomas, and J. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33(16), 1365–1367 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

T. Yardibi, J. Li, P. Stoica, M. Xue, and A. B. Baggeroer, “Source localization and sensing: a nonparametric iterative adaptive approach based on weighted least squares,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 46(1), 425–443 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

R. O. Schmidt, “Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 34(3), 276–280 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

L. Jian and P. Stoica, “An adaptive filtering approach to spectral estimation and SAR imaging,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44(6), 1469–1484 (1996).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. Grover, R. K. Murthy, V. S. Brar, and K. V. Chalam, “Comparison of retinal thickness in normal eyes using Stratus and Spectralis optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2644–2647 (2010).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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E. Bousi and C. Pitris, “Axial resolution improvement by modulated deconvolution in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 071307 (2012).
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Lancet (1)

D. T. Tan, J. K. Dart, E. J. Holland, and S. Kinoshita, “Corneal transplantation,” Lancet 379(9827), 1749–1761 (2012).
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Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
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L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
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Ophthalmology (1)

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 112(10), 1734–1746 (2005).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

H. L. Seck, Y. Zhang, and Y. C. Soh, “High resolution optical coherence tomography by ℓ1-optimization,” Opt. Commun. 284(7), 1752–1759 (2011).
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PLoS One (1)

L. Liu, K. K. Chu, G. H. Houser, B. J. Diephuis, Y. Li, E. J. Wilsterman, S. Shastry, G. Dierksen, S. E. Birket, M. Mazur, S. Byan-Parker, W. E. Grizzle, E. J. Sorscher, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “Method for quantitative study of airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography,” PLoS One 8(1), e54473 (2013).
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A. Boroomand, B. Tan, A. Wong, and K. Bizheva, “Axial resolution improvement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a depth-adaptive maximum-a-posterior framework,” Proc. SPIE 9312, 931241 (2015).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principles of FD-OCT and SE-OCT. (a) A Michelson interferometer-based OCT hardware system and the spectral interference. (b) FD-OCT uses inverse DFT to the retrieve depth profiles from the interferograms. (c) SE-OCT uses the autoregressive spectral estimation technique to retrieve the depth profiles, including modeling the reshaped interferograms to an autoregressive model and calculating the depth profiles using the model parameters.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 1.3μm axial resolution optical coherence tomography system. Two SLD arrays (Superlum Broadlighters T-850-HP, 755–930 nm and Exalos Ultra-Broadband EBS4C32, 938–1105 nm) are combined using a dichroic filter (Edmund optics #87-045). The combined beam is guided through a single mode fiber (Nufern, 780-HP) and is collimated by an achromatic lens (L8, AC050-015-B, Thorlabs Inc.). An objective lens (Mitutoyo Plan Apo NIR, 20 × , NA 0.4, 70% transmission) is used to focus the light to a scanning spot. The spectrometer 1 is composed of a 1200 lines/mm transmission grating (840 nm, Wasatch Photonics Inc.), a camera lens (Nikon AF Nikkor 85 mm f/1.8D), and a Si-based linear CCD camera (E2V, AViiVA EM4). The spectrometer 2 is composed of a 900 lines/mm transmission grating (900 nm, Wasatch Photonics Inc.), a camera lens (Nikon AF Nikkor 50 mm f ∕1.8D), and an InGaAs-based CCD camera (Sensors Unlimited GL2048L). L1-8, lenses; M1-3, mirrors; DF, dichroic filter, BS1-3, non-polarizing cube beam splitters; SMF, single mode fiber; RM, reference mirror; NDF, neutral density filter; G1-2, gratings; PC, personal computer; GS, galvo scanners.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Air wedge between two glass surfaces, imaged with FD-OCT vs. SE-OCT. (a&b) Cross-sectional images produced by FD-OCT (a) and SE-OCT (b). (c) Normalized Depth line profiles at the scan length of 7.5 mm in the FD-OCT image (red) and SE-OCT image (blue). (d) Measured wedge thickness using FD-OCT (red) and SE-OCT (blue) as a function of the calculated true thickness. (e) Plots of axial resolutions of FD-OCT (red) and SE-OCT (blue) as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio predicted by numerical simulation, with verifying experimental results (Squares: FD-OCT; Circles: SE-OCT).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between SE-OCT and FD-OCT analyses of polystyrene calibration particles, from the same interferogram data. (a, b & c) Cross-sectional images of calibration particles in water using FD-OCT (a), Gaussian reshaped FD-OCT (b) and SE-OCT (c). Scale bar: 20 µm. Insets at the left corner in (a, b & c): magnified views of two particles. Inset at the right corner in (a): the spectrum of the source used. Inset at the right corner in (c): a presentative image obtained by 1.3 µm axial resolution OCT. (d) Original (left), Gaussian reshaped (middle) and uniform reshaped (right) interferograms from one location after background subtraction. (e) Depth profiles in the images of FD-OCT (red), Guassian reshaped FD-OCT (black) and SE-OCT (blue) at the location indicated by the red (a), gray (b), and blue (c) vertical lines in (a, b & c). The coherence-length limited resolution (CLLR) of FD-OCT was 4.1 µm before spectral reshaping, which was measured the air water interface. The nominal optical height (3.2 µm) of the polystyrene particles fell below the CLLR and cannot be resolved by FD-OCT. By contrast, SE-OCT could resolved the two surfaces of the beads and correctly measured the size. Yellow arrows: two particles were overshadowed by the sidelobe artifacts of the water surface in FD-OCT and can be seen in Gaussian reshaped FD-OCT and SE-OCT. Orange circles: spurious peaks.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fresh corneal tissue from a normal rat ex vivo: SE-OCT vs. FD-OCT. (a-c) Cross-sectional images of a corneal central area produced by the 1.3-µm FD-OCT (a), 4.1-µm FD-OCT (b), and SE-OCT (c). Inset in (a): A three-dimensional rendering of the corneal tissue with blue and pink planes indicating the cross-sectional plane and the en face plane, respectively. (a’-c’) Magnified views of posterior corneal tissue indicated by the orange boxes in (a, b & c). (a”-c”) Corresponding en face images of the corneal endothelium produced by flattening the endothelium boundary. Hexagonally shaped cells can be discerned, confirming endothelial cells. (d) Representative histology of the rat cornea. EP: epithelium, S: stroma, DM: Descemet’s membrane, ED: endothelium, CLLR: coherence-length limited resolution. Scale bars: (a-c) Horizontal: 60 µm, vertical: 10 µm. (a’-c’) Horizontal: 40 µm, vertical: 5 µm. (a”-c”) 60 µm. (d) 5 µm.

Equations (2)

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x n = m=1 p a m x nm + n n
I AR (z)= σ 2 Δk | 1+ m=1 p a m exp(jzmΔk) | 2

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