Abstract

We theoretically propose a silicon nitride (Si3N4) grating coupler (GC) with both ultrahigh efficiency and simplified fabrication processes. Instead of using a bottom distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) or metal reflector, a bottom Si grating reflector (GR) with comparable reflectivity is utilized to improve the coupling efficiency. The fully etched Si GR is designed based on an industrially standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with 220 nm top Si layer. By properly adjusting the trench width and period length of the Si GR, a high reflectivity over 90% is obtained. The Si3N4 GC is optimized based on a common 400 nm Si3N4 layer sitting on the Si GR with a SiO2 separation layer. With an appropriate distance between the Si3N4 GC and bottom Si GR, a low coupling loss of −1.47 dB is theoretically obtained using uniform GC structure. A further record ultralow loss of −0.88 dB is predicted by apodizing the Si3N4 GC. The specific fabrication processes and tolerance are also investigated. Compared with DBR, the bottom Si GR can be easily fabricated by single step of patterning and etching, simplifying the fabrication processes.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (6)

Y. Huang, J. Song, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS compatible monolithic multi-layer Si₃N₄₋ on-SOI platform for low-loss high performance silicon photonics dense integration,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21859–21865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated waveguide coupled Si3N4 resonators in the ultrahigh-Q regime,” Optica 1(3), 153–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Li, X. Tu, J. Song, H. Zhou, X. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Efficient silicon nitride grating coupler with distributed Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21800–21805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Dan-Xia, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Xia, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform-Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. N. Andersen, W. E. Svendsen, T. Stimpel-Lindner, T. Sulima, and H. Baumgärtner, “Annealing and deposition effects of the chemical composition of silicon-rich nitride,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 243(1–4), 401–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338–3340 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

Andersen, K. N.

K. N. Andersen, W. E. Svendsen, T. Stimpel-Lindner, T. Sulima, and H. Baumgärtner, “Annealing and deposition effects of the chemical composition of silicon-rich nitride,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 243(1–4), 401–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. S.

Baumgärtner, H.

K. N. Andersen, W. E. Svendsen, T. Stimpel-Lindner, T. Sulima, and H. Baumgärtner, “Annealing and deposition effects of the chemical composition of silicon-rich nitride,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 243(1–4), 401–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Berroth, M.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Bowers, J. E.

Bruinink, C. M.

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1914–1916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338–3340 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dan-Xia, X.

X. Dan-Xia, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Xia, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform-Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Della Corte, F. G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338–3340 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

Fainman, Y.

Galland, C.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, L.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Hochberg, M.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Ikeda, K.

John, D. D.

Keyvaninia, S.

X. Dan-Xia, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Xia, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform-Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kunze, A.

Kwong, D. L.

Leinse, A.

Letzkus, F.

Li, C.

H. Zhang, C. Li, X. Tu, J. Song, H. Zhou, X. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Efficient silicon nitride grating coupler with distributed Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21800–21805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1914–1916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E. J.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, Y.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Luke, K.

Luo, X.

Mao, S. C.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

X. Dan-Xia, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Xia, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform-Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

X. Dan-Xia, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Xia, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform-Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patel, D.

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Poitras, C. B.

Poon, J. K. S.

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

X. Dan-Xia, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Xia, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform-Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338–3340 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rosa, M. F.

Sacher, W. D.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Samani, A.

Saperstein, R. E.

Schmid, J. H.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of proposed Si3N4 GC with bottom Si GR.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Coupling loss of different trench width W GC. (b) Coupling loss spectra of uniform and apodized Si3N4 GCs with and without Si substrate. (c) Field distribution of Si3N4 GCs without and with substrate. (d) Coupling loss as a function of SiO2 layer thickness.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Calculated reflectivity as a function of W GR and P GR. (b) Reflection spectra of Si GR and DBR. Inset is the light propagating profile of the Si GR.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Calculated coupling loss with respect to separation layer thickness H. (b) Coupling loss spectra of uniform and apodized Si3N4 GCs with bottom Si GR, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Coupling spectrum of uniform and apodized Si3N4 GCs with respect to (a) W GR and (b) W GC variation, respectively. (c) Coupling spectrum of apodized Si3N4 GCs with different BOX layer thickness.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Finalized structure parameters of apodized Si3N4 GC (nm)

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