Abstract

We propose a reconfigurable terahertz (THz) metamaterial that can control the transmittance by out-of-plane actuation with changing the sub-micron gap distance between electrically coupled metamaterial elements. By using the out-of-plane actuation, it was possible to avoid contact between the coupled metamaterial elements across the small initial gap during the adjustment of the gap size. THz spectroscopy was performed during actuation, and the transmission dip frequency was confirmed to be tunable from 0.82 to 0.92 THz for one linear polarization state and from 0.80 to 0.91 THz for the other linear polarization; the two polarizations were orthogonal. The proposed approach will contribute to the development of tunable metamaterials based on structural deformations.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, L. Jiang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Reconfigurable photonic metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2142–2144 (2011).
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    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically reconfigurable interpixelated metamaterial for independent tuning of multiple resonances at terahertz spectral region,” Optica 2(6), 571–578 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, L. Dhakar, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11678 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, Y. Qian, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Periodic array of subwavelength MEMS cantilevers for dynamic manipulation of terahertz waves,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. Lett. 24(3), 525–527 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Valente, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Lalas, N. Kantartzis, and T. Tsiboukis, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials by means of piezoelectric MEMS actuators,” Europhys. Lett. 107(5), 58004 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lin and C. Lee, “Tuning characteristics of mirrorlike T-shape terahertz metamaterial using out-of-plane actuated cantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251914 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS reconfigurable metamaterial for terahertz switchable filter and modulator,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21326–21339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Spiral metamaterial for active tuning of optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221906 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kanda, K. Konishi, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Dynamics of photo-induced terahertz optical activity in metal chiral gratings,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3510–3512 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tatartschuk, N. Gneiding, F. Hesmer, A. Radkovskaya, and E. Shamonina, “Mapping inter-element coupling in metamaterials: Scaling down to infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094904 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “MEMS Based Structurally Tunable Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(5), 580–595 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, L. Jiang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Reconfigurable photonic metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2142–2144 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “MEMS Based Structurally Tunable Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(5), 580–595 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beigang, R.

Berry, C. W.

M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dhakar, L.

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically reconfigurable interpixelated metamaterial for independent tuning of multiple resonances at terahertz spectral region,” Optica 2(6), 571–578 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, L. Dhakar, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11678 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, Y. Qian, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Periodic array of subwavelength MEMS cantilevers for dynamic manipulation of terahertz waves,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. Lett. 24(3), 525–527 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “MEMS Based Structurally Tunable Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(5), 580–595 (2011).
[Crossref]

Forchel, A.

Fu, Y. H.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujita, H.

Giessen, H.

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gneiding, N.

E. Tatartschuk, N. Gneiding, F. Hesmer, A. Radkovskaya, and E. Shamonina, “Mapping inter-element coupling in metamaterials: Scaling down to infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H. C.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Ho, C. P.

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically reconfigurable interpixelated metamaterial for independent tuning of multiple resonances at terahertz spectral region,” Optica 2(6), 571–578 (2015).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, L. Dhakar, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11678 (2015).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, Y. Qian, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Periodic array of subwavelength MEMS cantilevers for dynamic manipulation of terahertz waves,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. Lett. 24(3), 525–527 (2015).
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C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
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P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
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P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, L. Dhakar, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11678 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
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W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
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W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lin and C. Lee, “Tuning characteristics of mirrorlike T-shape terahertz metamaterial using out-of-plane actuated cantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251914 (2014).
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P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
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F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
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W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Spiral metamaterial for active tuning of optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221906 (2013).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Pei Ho, C.

P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, Y. Qian, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Periodic array of subwavelength MEMS cantilevers for dynamic manipulation of terahertz waves,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. Lett. 24(3), 525–527 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, L. Dhakar, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11678 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically reconfigurable interpixelated metamaterial for independent tuning of multiple resonances at terahertz spectral region,” Optica 2(6), 571–578 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, L. Dhakar, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11678 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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Radkovskaya, A.

E. Tatartschuk, N. Gneiding, F. Hesmer, A. Radkovskaya, and E. Shamonina, “Mapping inter-element coupling in metamaterials: Scaling down to infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094904 (2012).
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Rahm, M.

Shamonina, E.

E. Tatartschuk, N. Gneiding, F. Hesmer, A. Radkovskaya, and E. Shamonina, “Mapping inter-element coupling in metamaterials: Scaling down to infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094904 (2012).
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Shimoyama, I.

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Spiral metamaterial for active tuning of optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221906 (2013).
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Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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Singh, N.

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, Y. Qian, L. Dhakar, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11678 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, L. Dhakar, Y. Qian, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Periodic array of subwavelength MEMS cantilevers for dynamic manipulation of terahertz waves,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. Lett. 24(3), 525–527 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “MEMS Based Structurally Tunable Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(5), 580–595 (2011).
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Tanoto, H.

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Tao, H.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “MEMS Based Structurally Tunable Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(5), 580–595 (2011).
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Tao, J. F.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tatartschuk, E.

E. Tatartschuk, N. Gneiding, F. Hesmer, A. Radkovskaya, and E. Shamonina, “Mapping inter-element coupling in metamaterials: Scaling down to infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094904 (2012).
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Taylor, A. J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Teng, J. H.

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
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Tian, Z.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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Toshiyoshi, H.

Tsai, D. P.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Tsai, J. M. L.

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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Tsai, M. L. J.

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
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M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5708 (2014).
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Valente, J.

J. Valente, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
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Wolff, S.

Wu, Q. Y.

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
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Yang, S. H.

M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5708 (2014).
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Youngs, I. J.

J. Valente, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
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Zengerle, R.

Zhang, J. B.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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Zhang, W.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “MEMS Based Structurally Tunable Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(5), 580–595 (2011).
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Zhang, X. H.

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
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Zhang, X. M.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Zheludev, N. I.

J. Valente, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, L. Jiang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Reconfigurable photonic metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2142–2144 (2011).
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Zhu, W. M.

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Pitchappa, C. Pei Ho, Y.-S. Lin, P. Kropelnicki, C.-Y. Huang, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151104 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Spiral metamaterial for active tuning of optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221906 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M. L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, E. P. Li, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Micromachined switchable metamaterial with dual resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151902 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (3141 KB)      Movie

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the configuration of the proposed metamaterial unit. An SRR is fixed to a cantilever, which can only move out-of-plane relative to the substrate. (b) An SEM image of the fabricated metamaterial and a schematic of the pneumatic actuation system. (c) The fabricated metamaterial unit (c-i) without and (c-ii) with the applied pneumatic force.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Design for SRRs fixed to the cantilever and membrane. (b) Pneumatic actuation setup. (c) Relation between the applied pressure and displacement. (d) The cantilevers smoothly moving without contacting with the fixed membrane. (d-i) Without applied pneumatic force. (d-ii) With applied pneumatic force (see Visualization 1).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmittance spectra of the fabricated metamaterial. (b) Relation between the gap and resonant frequency.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated transmittance spectra for the proposed metamaterial using SRRs floating in air. (b) Current distributions for a 0.2-μm-gap at the resonant frequency for Txx (i) and Tyy (ii). (c) A schematic figure of a view area of the (d) electric field distributions for the 0.2-μm (α = 0° (i)), 0.7-μm (α = 1° (ii)), and 1.4-μm (α = 2° (iii)) gaps at the resonant frequencies. (e) Enlarged images of the electric field distributions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) A schematic of the simulation model (a) for α = 0° and (b) for α = 8°. (b) The simulated relation between the initial gaps and resonant frequencies. (c) Correlation between the angle α and resonant frequency.

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