Abstract

We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using such graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device, we experimentally demonstrate tunable wavelength conversion of a 10 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal by exploiting degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) progress in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for tunable QPSK wavelength conversion are less than 2.2 dB at a BER of 1 × 10−3.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  3. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (4)

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5564–5571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Yan, L. Fu, H. Peng, and Z. Liu, “Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(10), 2263–2274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, and Y. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4711–4728 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

L. Prigent and J.-P. Hamaide, “Measurement of fiber nonlinear Kerr coefficient by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(9), 1092–1095 (1993).
[Crossref]

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X. L.

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

Y. Wu, B. C. Yao, Q. Y. Feng, X. L. Cao, X. Y. Zhou, Y. J. Rao, Y. Gong, W. L. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, and K. S. Chiang, “Generation of cascaded four-wave-mixing with graphene-coated microfiber,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A64–A68 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dresselhaus, G.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Essiambre, R. J.

Feng, G.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q. Y.

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

K. Yan, L. Fu, H. Peng, and Z. Liu, “Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(10), 2263–2274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godbout, N.

Gong, Y.

Y. Wu, B. C. Yao, Q. Y. Feng, X. L. Cao, X. Y. Zhou, Y. J. Rao, Y. Gong, W. L. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, and K. S. Chiang, “Generation of cascaded four-wave-mixing with graphene-coated microfiber,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A64–A68 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, T.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hale, P. J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamaide, J.-P.

L. Prigent and J.-P. Hamaide, “Measurement of fiber nonlinear Kerr coefficient by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(9), 1092–1095 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hone, J. C.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hua, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kockaert, P.

Kwong, D. L.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Li, X.

Y. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, and Y. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, C. H. Y. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. M.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Yan, L. Fu, H. Peng, and Z. Liu, “Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(10), 2263–2274 (2013).
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Lo, G. Q.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
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Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
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Martinez, A.

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
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Massar, S.

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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McMillan, J. F.

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Mikhailov, S. A.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
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Moger, J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, T.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukasa, K.

M. Takahashi, K. Mukasa, and T. Yaji, “Full C-L band tunable wavelength conversion by zero dispersion and zero dispersion slope HNLF,” in European Conference on Optical communication (ECOC), paper P1.08 (2009).

Nah, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, H.

K. Yan, L. Fu, H. Peng, and Z. Liu, “Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(10), 2263–2274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrone, N.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pimenta, M. A.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piner, R.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ping, L. K.

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polavarapu, L.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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L. Prigent and J.-P. Hamaide, “Measurement of fiber nonlinear Kerr coefficient by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(9), 1092–1095 (1993).
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Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
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Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y. J.

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savchenko, A. K.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

M. Takahashi, K. Mukasa, and T. Yaji, “Full C-L band tunable wavelength conversion by zero dispersion and zero dispersion slope HNLF,” in European Conference on Optical communication (ECOC), paper P1.08 (2009).

Tang, D.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tolstik, N.

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdes-Garcia, A.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Zande, A.

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Virally, S.

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Hua, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Wang, Z. G.

Winzer, P. J.

Wong, C. W.

T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
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Wu, B.

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
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Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, B. C. Yao, Q. Y. Feng, X. L. Cao, X. Y. Zhou, Y. J. Rao, Y. Gong, W. L. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, and K. S. Chiang, “Generation of cascaded four-wave-mixing with graphene-coated microfiber,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A64–A68 (2015).
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Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yaji, T.

M. Takahashi, K. Mukasa, and T. Yaji, “Full C-L band tunable wavelength conversion by zero dispersion and zero dispersion slope HNLF,” in European Conference on Optical communication (ECOC), paper P1.08 (2009).

Yamashita, S.

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K. Yan, L. Fu, H. Peng, and Z. Liu, “Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(10), 2263–2274 (2013).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
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T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
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T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic - layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Zhang, W. L.

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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
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T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
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H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

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K. Yan, L. Fu, H. Peng, and Z. Liu, “Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(10), 2263–2274 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
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T. Gu, H. Zhou, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Coherent four-wave mixing on hybrid graphene-silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 7500106 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, X. Zhou, B. Wu, and K. S. Chiang, “Four-wave mixing in a microfiber attached onto a graphene film,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(3), 249–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
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Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

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Science (1)

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Four-wave mixing in slow-light graphene-silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), paper FF1K.8 (2014).
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M. Takahashi, K. Mukasa, and T. Yaji, “Full C-L band tunable wavelength conversion by zero dispersion and zero dispersion slope HNLF,” in European Conference on Optical communication (ECOC), paper P1.08 (2009).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process of the graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical microscope (OM) image of graphene transferred on a SiO2/Si substrate. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of graphene transferred on silicon-on-insulter (SOI). (c) Typical Raman spectrum of single-layer graphene on a SiO2/Si substrate (excitation wavelength: 532 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of tunable wavelength conversion based on degenerate FWM in graphene.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for degenerate FWM-based wavelength conversion in graphene. Inset: “sandwiched structure” graphene sample used as a nonlinear optical device. ECL: external cavity laser; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; TF: tunable filter; OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; VOA, variable optical attenuator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured FWM spectra with (red) and without (black) graphene. (b) Measured conversion efficiency of FWM with and without graphene when pump power is tuned from 23 dBm to 33 dBm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spectra for tunable wavelength conversion using degenerate FWM in graphene. The converted idler wavelength is tuned by changing the pump wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Converted idler wavelength versus pump wavelength. (b) Measured FWM conversion efficiency with and without graphene when pump wavelength is tuned from 1547 nm to 1553 nm. Pump power: 31dBm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured BER versus received OSNR for wavelength conversion of QPSK signal. Insets show constellations of QPSK.

Equations (2)

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1 / λ conv = 2 / λ pump 1 / λ signal
E conv E 2 pump E * signal

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