Abstract

The performance of a rapidly swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system combined with an open-path Herriott cell was evaluated for time-resolved measurements of chemical species with broad and narrow absorption spectra. A spectral window spanning 1278 – 1390 cm−1 was acquired at a 200 Hz acquisition rate, corresponding to a tuning rate of 2x104 cm−1/s, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm−1. The capability of the ECQCL to measure < 100 ppbv changes in nitrous oxide (N2O) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (F134A) concentrations on millisecond timescales was demonstrated in simulated plume studies with releases near the open-path Herriott cell. Absorbance spectra measured using the ECQCL system exhibited noise-equivalent absorption coefficients of 5x10−9 cm−1Hz-1/2. For a spectrum acquisition time of 5 ms, noise-equivalent concentrations (NEC) for N2O and F134A were measured to be 70 and 16 ppbv respectively, which improved to sub-ppbv levels with averaging to 100 s. Noise equivalent column densities of 0.64 and 0.25 ppmv × m in 1 sec are estimated for N2O and F134A.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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Opt. Express 20(11) 12432-12442 (2012)

References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (8)

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, and A. Goyal, “Standoff detection of chemical and biological threats using miniature widely tunable QCLs,” Proc. SPIE 9467, 94672S (2015).

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Lyakh, R. Barron-Jimenez, I. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “External cavity quantum cascade lasers with ultra rapid acousto-optic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, and J. Kriesel, “Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 93700Z (2015).

N. A. Macleod, F. Molero, and D. Weidmann, “Broadband standoff detection of large molecules by mid-infrared active coherent laser spectrometry,” Opt. Express 23(2), 912–928 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

N. A. Macleod, R. Rose, and D. Weidmann, “Middle infrared active coherent laser spectrometer for standoff detection of chemicals,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3708–3711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Craig, M. S. Taubman, A. S. Lea, M. C. Phillips, E. E. Josberger, and M. B. Raschke, “Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30401–30414 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

M. Nikodem, D. Weidmann, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy with harmonic detection of molecular spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy for remote open-path trace-gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(12), 16466–16481 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Phillips and M. S. Taubman, “Intracavity sensing via compliance voltage in an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2664–2666 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Harb, T. K. Boyson, A. G. Kallapur, I. R. Petersen, M. E. Calzada, T. G. Spence, K. P. Kirkbride, and D. S. Moore, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based CRDS substance detection: real-time detection of TNT,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15489–15502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Suter, B. Bernacki, and M. C. Phillips, “Spectral and angular dependence of mid-infrared diffuse scattering from explosives residues for standoff detection using external cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 965–974 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Phillips and B. E. Bernacki, “Hyperspectral microscopy of explosives particles using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Eng. 52(6), 061302 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

M. S. Taubman, “Low-noise high-performance current controllers for quantum cascade lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Su, W. S. Tam, and I. Leonov, “Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 629–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. T. Parsons, I. Sydoryk, A. Lim, T. J. McIntyre, J. Tulip, W. Jäger, and K. McDonald, “Real-time monitoring of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene in a photoreaction chamber with a tunable mid-infrared laser and ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A90–A99 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. Tsai and G. Wysocki, “External-cavity quantum cascade lasers with fast wavelength scanning,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 243–251 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Mukherjee, I. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, R. Go, A. Tsekoun, X. Wang, J. Fan, and C. K. N. Patel, “Sub-parts-per-billion level detection of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) by quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1543–1548 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2004 (2)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, “Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(12), 1452–1461 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aidam, R.

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Armacost, C.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bakhirkin, Y.

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barron-Jimenez, R.

A. Lyakh, R. Barron-Jimenez, I. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “External cavity quantum cascade lasers with ultra rapid acousto-optic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernacki, B.

J. D. Suter, B. Bernacki, and M. C. Phillips, “Spectral and angular dependence of mid-infrared diffuse scattering from explosives residues for standoff detection using external cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 965–974 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bernacki, B. E.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Phillips and B. E. Bernacki, “Hyperspectral microscopy of explosives particles using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Eng. 52(6), 061302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boskovic, D.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bour, D.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boyson, T. K.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calzada, M. E.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cannon, B. D.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Phillips, T. L. Myers, M. D. Wojcik, and B. D. Cannon, “External cavity quantum cascade laser for quartz tuning fork photoacoustic spectroscopy of broad absorption features,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1177–1179 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Capasso, F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. M.

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corzine, S.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Craig, I. M.

Curl, R. F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, P. B.

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Day, T.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeMott, P. J.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, E. R.

P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, and A. Goyal, “Standoff detection of chemical and biological threats using miniature widely tunable QCLs,” Proc. SPIE 9467, 94672S (2015).

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diehl, L.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Driad, R.

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dunayevskiy, I.

Faist, J.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flynn, J. H.

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, F.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Go, R.

Godejohann, M.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldenstein, C. S.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, L.

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goyal, A.

P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, and A. Goyal, “Standoff detection of chemical and biological threats using miniature widely tunable QCLs,” Proc. SPIE 9467, 94672S (2015).

Goyal, A. K.

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

Grahmann, J.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Griffin, R. J.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Griffith, D. W. T.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R. K.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harb, C. C.

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Herndon, S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hofler, G.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hugger, S.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Hughes, L. C.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jäger, W.

Jarvis, J.

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Jarvis, J. P.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jeffries, J. B.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

Johnson, P. A.

Johnson, T. J.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Josberger, E. E.

Kallapur, A. G.

Khan, M. A.

Kinzer, M.

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirkbride, K. P.

Kosterev, A. A.

Kotidis, P.

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, and A. Goyal, “Standoff detection of chemical and biological threats using miniature widely tunable QCLs,” Proc. SPIE 9467, 94672S (2015).

Kreidenweis, S. M.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kriesel, J.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, and J. Kriesel, “Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 93700Z (2015).

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lang, N.

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lea, A. S.

Lefer, B. L.

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leonov, I.

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Su, W. S. Tam, and I. Leonov, “Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 629–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lewicki, R.

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, A.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Su, W. S. Tam, and I. Leonov, “Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 629–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lopatik, D.

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lyakh, A.

A. Lyakh, R. Barron-Jimenez, I. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “External cavity quantum cascade lasers with ultra rapid acousto-optic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macleod, N. A.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maulini, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mazurenko, A.

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

McCurdy, M. R.

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonald, K.

McIntyre, T. J.

McManus, B.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merten, A.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. J.

Mizaikoff, B.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molero, F.

Moore, D. S.

Mukherjee, A.

Muller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Myers, T. L.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Phillips, T. L. Myers, M. D. Wojcik, and B. D. Cannon, “External cavity quantum cascade laser for quartz tuning fork photoacoustic spectroscopy of broad absorption features,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1177–1179 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nave, A.

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nikodem, M.

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy for remote open-path trace-gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(12), 16466–16481 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nikodem, D. Weidmann, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy with harmonic detection of molecular spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

Norman, M.

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ostendorf, R.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parsons, M. T.

Patel, C. K. N.

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Petersen, I. R.

Phillips, M. C.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, and J. Kriesel, “Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 93700Z (2015).

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Craig, M. S. Taubman, A. S. Lea, M. C. Phillips, E. E. Josberger, and M. B. Raschke, “Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30401–30414 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Phillips and M. S. Taubman, “Intracavity sensing via compliance voltage in an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2664–2666 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Phillips and B. E. Bernacki, “Hyperspectral microscopy of explosives particles using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Eng. 52(6), 061302 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Suter, B. Bernacki, and M. C. Phillips, “Spectral and angular dependence of mid-infrared diffuse scattering from explosives residues for standoff detection using external cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 965–974 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Phillips, T. L. Myers, M. D. Wojcik, and B. D. Cannon, “External cavity quantum cascade laser for quartz tuning fork photoacoustic spectroscopy of broad absorption features,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1177–1179 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prasanna, M.

Radermacher, P.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

Reardon, J.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, W.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rhoderick, G. C.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robinson, A. L.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Röpcke, J.

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rose, R.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryan, K. C.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sams, R. L.

Sanchez, N. P.

Schenk, H.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schiffern, J. T.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, I. A.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seichter, F.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharpe, S. W.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spearrin, R. M.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spence, T. G.

Stahl, R. D.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stevens, L.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stockwell, C. E.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, Z.

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Su, W. S. Tam, and I. Leonov, “Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 629–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, R. C.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suter, J. D.

J. D. Suter, B. Bernacki, and M. C. Phillips, “Spectral and angular dependence of mid-infrared diffuse scattering from explosives residues for standoff detection using external cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 965–974 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sydoryk, I.

Tam, W. S.

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Su, W. S. Tam, and I. Leonov, “Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 629–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tao, L.

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taubman, M. S.

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, and J. Kriesel, “Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 93700Z (2015).

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Craig, M. S. Taubman, A. S. Lea, M. C. Phillips, E. E. Josberger, and M. B. Raschke, “Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30401–30414 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Phillips and M. S. Taubman, “Intracavity sensing via compliance voltage in an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2664–2666 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Taubman, “Low-noise high-performance current controllers for quantum cascade lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Troccoli, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.

T. Tsai and G. Wysocki, “External-cavity quantum cascade lasers with fast wavelength scanning,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 243–251 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsekoun, A.

Tulip, J.

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Urbanski, S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Helden, J. H.

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vogt, J.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wachter, U.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J.

J. Wagner, R. Ostendorf, J. Grahmann, A. Merten, S. Hugger, J. P. Jarvis, F. Fuchs, D. Boskovic, and H. Schenk, “Widely tuneable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9370, 937012 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Weidmann, D.

Wilk, A.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojcik, M. D.

Wörle, K.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wysocki, G.

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy for remote open-path trace-gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(12), 16466–16481 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nikodem, D. Weidmann, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy with harmonic detection of molecular spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Tsai and G. Wysocki, “External-cavity quantum cascade lasers with fast wavelength scanning,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 243–251 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, F.

Xu, Y.

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Su, W. S. Tam, and I. Leonov, “Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 629–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q. K.

S. Hugger, F. Fuchs, J. Jarvis, M. Kinzer, Q. K. Yang, R. Driad, R. Aidam, and J. Wagner, “Broadband-tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers for the spectroscopic detection of hazardous substances,” Proc. SPIE 8631, 86312I (2013).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

Yokelson, R. J.

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zafiriou, K.

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

Zah, C. E.

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, N.

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
[Crossref]

Zondlo, M. A.

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85(5), 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

M. C. Phillips, M. S. Taubman, B. E. Bernacki, B. D. Cannon, R. D. Stahl, J. T. Schiffern, and T. L. Myers, “Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2047–2056 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (7)

M. Nikodem, D. Weidmann, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy with harmonic detection of molecular spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Tsai and G. Wysocki, “External-cavity quantum cascade lasers with fast wavelength scanning,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 243–251 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Suter, B. Bernacki, and M. C. Phillips, “Spectral and angular dependence of mid-infrared diffuse scattering from explosives residues for standoff detection using external cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 965–974 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Su, W. S. Tam, and I. Leonov, “Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 629–639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lyakh, R. Barron-Jimenez, I. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “External cavity quantum cascade lasers with ultra rapid acousto-optic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (2)

L. Gong, R. Lewicki, R. J. Griffin, J. H. Flynn, B. L. Lefer, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric ammonia measurements in Houston, TX using an external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(18), 9721–9733 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens, “Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 9727–9754 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Breath Res. (1)

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. (1)

J. H. van Helden, D. Lopatik, A. Nave, N. Lang, P. B. Davies, and J. Röpcke, “High resolution spectroscopy of silane with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser: absolute line strengths of the ν3 fundamental band at 4.6 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 151, 287–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. C. Phillips and B. E. Bernacki, “Hyperspectral microscopy of explosives particles using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Eng. 52(6), 061302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

C. C. Harb, T. K. Boyson, A. G. Kallapur, I. R. Petersen, M. E. Calzada, T. G. Spence, K. P. Kirkbride, and D. S. Moore, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based CRDS substance detection: real-time detection of TNT,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15489–15502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Craig, M. S. Taubman, A. S. Lea, M. C. Phillips, E. E. Josberger, and M. B. Raschke, “Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30401–30414 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Macleod, F. Molero, and D. Weidmann, “Broadband standoff detection of large molecules by mid-infrared active coherent laser spectrometry,” Opt. Express 23(2), 912–928 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (5)

P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, and A. Goyal, “Standoff detection of chemical and biological threats using miniature widely tunable QCLs,” Proc. SPIE 9467, 94672S (2015).

A. K. Goyal, P. Kotidis, E. R. Deutsch, N. Zhu, M. Norman, J. Ye, K. Zafiriou, and A. Mazurenko, “Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9455, 94550L (2015).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (5899 KB)      Movie file showing spectral acquisition and fitting of spectra collected during the release of N2O at an acquisition rate of 200 Hz.
» Visualization 2: MP4 (2535 KB)      Movie file showing spectral acquisition and fitting of spectra collected during the release of F134A at an acquisition rate of 200 Hz.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Panel (a) A diagram of the experimental layout used in this work. Acronyms for the labels in the figure are defined as follows: ECQCL: External cavity quantum cascade laser, SIG DET: liquid nitrogen cooled PV-MCT detector used for measuring transmitted light from the multi-pass cell, MPC: Herriott multi-pass cell, RP: release point for the simulated N2O and F134A plumes, DAQ: digital acquisition system, POL: wire grid polarizer used to attenuate the transmitted laser beam from the MPC. Panel (b) A plot of the transmitted intensity through the Herriott cell as the laser was swept over its full tuning range is compared to a simulated absorption spectrum through 127 meters of the atmosphere that was generated using parameters from the HITRAN spectral database [36]. Panels (c) and (d) are plots of the NWIR library spectra for F134A and N2O used in the WLS fitting analysis [25].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Panel (a) A simulated plot of the time-dependent encoder signal (red trace) and light intensity transmitted (black trace) by the Herriott cell during a single spectral acquisition. For this example a galvanometer frequency and intensity modulation frequency of 20 Hz and 100 kHz were used, respectively. Panel (b) An expanded view of the intensity modulated signal around 0.01 seconds. Ion,avg and Ioff,avg correspond to the average intensities transmitted by the Herriott cell when the laser is on and off respectively. The value of Ion-off is calculated by subtracting Ion,avg from Ioff,avg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Panels (a) and (c) Example spectra for N2O and F134A collected at an acquisition rate of 200 Hz. In both panels the result of the WLS fit (red trace) is overlaid on the experimental spectrum (black trace). Panels (b) and (d) The time dependent N2O and F134A concentration profiles obtained from WLS fitting of the spectral data are provided in panels (a) and (c). For the WLS of the N2O data, the NWIR library spectrum was convolved with a Gaussian function with a FWHM of 0.20 cm−1. The time dependent concentration profiles for N2O and F134A extracted from WLS fitting of individual spectra over 2 seconds are provided as movies in Visualization 1 and Visualization 2 respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Panels (a) and (b) 20 seconds of N2O concentration data recorded at a 200 Hz acquisition rate for pre and post-release conditions, respectively. Panel (c) An FFT of the time-dependent concentration traces from panels (a) and (b). In panel (c), “Background FFT” and “Signal FFT” were generated from the data shown in panels (a) and (b) respectively. The “Smoothed Signal” and “Smoothed Background” traces in panel (c) serve as a guide for the trend in the FFT amplitudes of the signal and background for the time-dependent concentration data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average N2O spectra acquired at acquisition rates from 40 to 200 Hz. For each acquisition rate 20 spectra are averaged. The resulting WLS fit using the broadened NWIR library spectrum is provided for each average spectrum (red trace).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission spectrum from 1305 – 1310 cm−1 acquired at a spectral acquisition rate of 200 Hz. The H2O spectral feature used for the scan frequency reproducibility studies is highlighted by a vertical arrow. (b) Allan plots for the stability of the center position of the H2O spectral feature at 1308.20 cm−1 for acquisition rates of 40, 100, and 200 Hz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example absorbance spectra from 1290 to 1310 cm−1 acquired at acquisition rates of 40, 100, and 200 Hz corresponding to plots (a), (b), and (c) respectively. The 1297.5 to 1301.7 cm−1 region for each absorbance spectrum used to calculate the absorbance noise is highlighted using dotted vertical lines.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Allan deviation plots for N2O (panel (a)) and F134A (panel (c)) calculated from time dependent concentration data acquired at 40 and 200 Hz acquisition rates. The time dependent concentrations for the data collected at 200 Hz are provided for N2O and F134A in panels (b) and (d), respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scanning characteristics for the ECQCL at the spectral acquisition rates explored in this work. The detection bandwidth is set by the current modulation frequency of the laser. The instrumental scan resolution is taken from the FWHM of the Gaussian function convolved with the NWIR library spectra to match the experimentally observed spectral resolution.

Tables Icon

Table 2 A summary of the noise equivalent column densities (NECD) and sweep rates reported for closed path, open path, and standoff measurements of N2O. The value provided for the current work is taken from the 1 sec NEC value provided in Fig. 8 at a 200 Hz acquisition rate. The 1 sec NECD values presented in the table for other measurements were calculated after bandwidth normalization and accounting for the effective optical path. The system type “Closed” describes N2O measurements made in partially evacuated sample cells at pressures less than atmospheric. An “Open” system type describes an open-path measurement made at atmospheric pressure using a multi-pass cell without an enclosed beam path. A “Standoff” measurement denotes measurement over an open path to a retroreflector or hard target.

Tables Icon

Table 3 A summary of the noise equivalent column densities (NECD) and sweep rates reported for open path and standoff measurements of F134A. The value provided for the current work is taken from the 1 sec NEC value provided in Fig. 8 at a 200 Hz acquisition rate. The 1 sec NECD values presented in the table for other measurements were calculated after bandwidth normalization and accounting for the effective optical path.

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