Abstract

In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4. Using this technique no stress-induced cracks in the Si3N4 layer were observed resulting in a high yield of devices on the wafer. The propagation losses of the obtained waveguides were measured to be as low as 0.4 dB/cm at a wavelength of around 1550 nm.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  20. TriPleXTM is commercially available through LioniX BV, Enschede, The Netherlands.

2014 (4)

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated waveguide coupled Si3N4 resonators in the ultrahigh-Q regime,” Optica 1(3), 153 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Yurtsever, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Zabihian, W. Drexler, and R. Baets, “Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1050–1061 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (2)

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, “Optical trapping of microparticles using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions on an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(19), 3803–3809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1685–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature Photon. 4(1), 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11366–11370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Elsevier, 2007).

Alex, A.

Alic, N.

Baets, R.

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Besselink, G. A. J.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Boller, K.-J.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, P. W. L. van Dijk, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, and K.-J. Boller, “Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22937–22961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Brasch, V.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burla, M.

Cai, H.

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, “Optical trapping of microparticles using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions on an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(19), 3803–3809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, D.

Drexler, W.

Dutt, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fainman, Y.

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

Finkelstein, H.

Foster, M. A.

R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1685–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature Photon. 4(1), 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nature Photon. 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a CMOS-compatible platform,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1685–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature Photon. 4(1), 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature Photon. 4(1), 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11366–11370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R.

Heideman, R. G.

Herr, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoekman, M.

Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, K.

John, D.

Kanger, J. S.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. R. H.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Klein, E. J.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lambeck, P. V.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lauermann, M.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. J.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leinse, A.

Leuthold, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Levy, J. S.

Li, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Luke, K.

Marpaung, D.

Marpaung, D. A. I.

Merget, F.

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nature Photon. 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morrison, B.

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nature Photon. 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Offerhaus, H. L.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Oldenbeuving, R. M.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, P. W. L. van Dijk, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, and K.-J. Boller, “Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22937–22961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pant, R.

Pfeifle, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

Poon, A. W.

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, “Optical trapping of microparticles using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions on an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(19), 3803–3809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

Roeloffzen, C.

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

Romero-García, S.

Saperstein, R. E.

Schindler, P.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmogrow, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spencer, D. T.

Taddei, C.

Tien, M.-C.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature Photon. 4(1), 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

van der Slot, P. J. M.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

van Dijk, P. W. L.

Wegner, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weimann, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wijn, R.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

Ymeti, A.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yurtsever, G.

Zabihian, B.

Zhong, F.

Zhuang, L.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, G. A. J. Besselink, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1417–1421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, “Optical trapping of microparticles using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions on an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(19), 3803–3809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (3)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nature Photon. 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature Photon. 4(1), 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nature Photon. 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013).
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C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, P. W. L. van Dijk, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, and K.-J. Boller, “Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22937–22961 (2013).
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D. Marpaung, B. Morrison, R. Pant, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. Heideman, and B. J. Eggleton, “Si3N4 ring resonator-based microwave photonic notch filter with an ultrahigh peak rejection,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23286–23294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. John, D. Dai, M.-C. Tien, J. S. Barton, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3163–3174 (2011).
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K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12987–12994 (2008).
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K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22829–22833 (2013).
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A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11366–11370 (2009).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, C. J. Lee, H. Song, M. R. H. Khan, H. L. Offerhaus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser,” Proc. SPIE 9135, 91351B (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. Heideman and M. Hoekman, “Surface waveguide and method of manufacture,” US Patent 7,142,7592 (2006).

TriPleXTM is commercially available through LioniX BV, Enschede, The Netherlands.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Elsevier, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated dispersion parameter, D, for bulk Si3N4 (black) and for quasi-TM modes (primarily polarized along the y-direction) of waveguides with a fixed width of 0.8 μm and a height of 0.8 μm (red), 1.0 μm (blue), and 1.2 μm (green). While bulk Si3N4 does not exhibit a ZDW at wavelengths between 1000 nm and 2000 nm, the ZDW of the waveguides are 1200 nm (d = 0.8 μm), 1420 nm (d = 1.0 μm), and 1560 nm (d = 1.2 μm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Steps of waveguide manufacturing. (a): A trench with depth d and width w is etched into an 8 μm layer of thermally oxidized silicon (SiO2, blue) on a silicon wafer. (b): 250 nm of Si3N4 (red) is deposited homogeneously over all exposed surfaces using LPCVD. (c): The trench is completely filled with Si3N4 and a homogeneous Si3N4 layer over the whole trench width of up to 0.9 μm is formed. (d): The residual Si3N4 on the top surface of the wafer is removed from the wafer using chemical-assisted mechanical polishing and dry etching. The remaining Si3N4 forms the waveguide core with the dimensions of the etched trench. A top cladding of SiO2 can be deposited optionally on top of the waveguide cores.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM pictures: (a) A trench etched in thermally oxidized silicon with w = 0.8 μm and d = 1.0 μm. (b) and (c): the cross section of silicon nitride waveguide core with w = 0.83 μm and d = 0.8 μm with a layer PECVD silica on top (b) and w = 0.9 μm and d = 1.2 μm without a top layer (c). Note that all pictures are taken at an angle, making the vertical direction appear smaller.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Power transmission of light with a center wavelength of 1560 nm (TM polarization) measured for different waveguide lengths (2.30 cm, 3.89 cm, 6.90 cm, and 10.48 cm) and waveguide depths (0.8 μm (blue circles), 1.0 μm (red squares), and 1.2 μm (black triangles)). The waveguide width varies between 0.7 μm and 0.9 μm. The graph has been corrected for the coupling losses, which vary between 13 to 15 dB in total. (b) Simulated bending losses of the quasi-TM mode at a wavelength of 1550 nm for various bending radii. Simulations were performed for cross sections and depths of w = 0.5 μm and d = 0.8 μm (red triangles), w = 0.8 μm and d = 0.8 μm (blue squares), w = 0.5 μm and d = 1.2 μm (black circles), and w = 0.8 μm and d = 1.2 μm (green diamonds).

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