Abstract

To face the increased demand for bandwidth, cost-effectiveness and simplicity of future Ethernet data communications, a comparison between two different solutions based on directly-modulated VCSEL sources and Silicon Photonics technologies is carried out. Also by exploiting 4-PAM modulation, the transmission of 50-Gb/s and beyond capacity per channel is analyzed by means of BER performance. Applications for optical backplane, very short reach and in case of client-optics networks and intra and inter massive data centers communications (up to 10 km) are taken into account. A comparative analysis based on the power consumption is also proposed.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (4)

P. Boffi, A. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 49(15), 953–955 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Rodes, M. Mueller, B. Li, J. Estaran, J. Jensen, T. Gruendl, M. Ortsiefer, C. Neumeyr, J. Rosskopf, K. Larsen, M. Amann, and I. Monroy, “High-speed 1550 nm VCSEL data transmission link employing 25 GBd 4-PAM modulation and hard decision forward error correction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 689–695 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. L. Wei, J. Ingham, D. Cunningham, R. Penty, and I. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(20), 3273–3280 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064018 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Agrell, E.

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alon, E.

Amann, M.

Amberg, P.

Andrekson, P.

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 49(15), 953–955 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Bach, H.-G.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beling, A.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boffi, P.

P. Boffi, A. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064018 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boletti, A.

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

Braendli, M.

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

Bruns, J.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Buchmann, P.

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

Buckwalter, J.

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, D.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dama, B.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Dayringer, M.

Dong, P.

Estaran, J.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Forestieri, E.

Gainsley, J.

Gardellini, D.

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

Gatto, A.

P. Boffi, A. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geen, M.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gothoskar, P.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Gruendl, T.

Gustavsson, J.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haglund, A.

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haglund, Å.

Haglund, E.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hertle, J.

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

Ho, R.

Ingham, J.

Jensen, J.

Joel, A.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 49(15), 953–955 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karout, J.

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kossel, M.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A.

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kroh, M.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Larsen, K.

Larsson, A.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 49(15), 953–955 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laval, S.

Lawrence, R.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lecunff, Y.

Leeb, W. R.

Lexau, J.

Li, B.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Liu, F.

Ludwig, R.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martelli, A. P.

P. Boffi, A. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martelli, P.

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064018 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

P. Boffi, A. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

Menolfi, C.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

Metz, P.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Moghadam, H. F.

Monroy, I.

Morf, T.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

Mueller, M.

Mukherjee, B.

Neumeyr, C.

R. Rodes, M. Mueller, B. Li, J. Estaran, J. Jensen, T. Gruendl, M. Ortsiefer, C. Neumeyr, J. Rosskopf, K. Larsen, M. Amann, and I. Monroy, “High-speed 1550 nm VCSEL data transmission link employing 25 GBd 4-PAM modulation and hard decision forward error correction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 689–695 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ortsiefer, M.

R. Rodes, M. Mueller, B. Li, J. Estaran, J. Jensen, T. Gruendl, M. Ortsiefer, C. Neumeyr, J. Rosskopf, K. Larsen, M. Amann, and I. Monroy, “High-speed 1550 nm VCSEL data transmission link employing 25 GBd 4-PAM modulation and hard decision forward error correction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 689–695 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

Osmond, J.

Ossieur, P.

N. Quadir, P. Ossieur, and P. Townsend, “A 56Gb/s PAM-4 VCSEL driver circuit,” in Proc. IET Irish Signals & Systems Conference (2012).
[Crossref]

Patil, D.

Penty, R.

Pfennigbauer, M.

Pinguet, T.

Quadir, N.

N. Quadir, P. Ossieur, and P. Townsend, “A 56Gb/s PAM-4 VCSEL driver circuit,” in Proc. IET Irish Signals & Systems Conference (2012).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

Reutemann, R.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

Rodes, R.

Ronneberg, E.

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rosskopf, J.

Ruegg, M.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

Safaisini, R.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmatz, M.

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

Shastri, K.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Shubin, I.

Strasser, M. M.

Sunder, S.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Szczerba, K.

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 49(15), 953–955 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tacca, M.

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064018 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H.

Toifl, T.

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

Townsend, P.

N. Quadir, P. Ossieur, and P. Townsend, “A 56Gb/s PAM-4 VCSEL driver circuit,” in Proc. IET Irish Signals & Systems Conference (2012).
[Crossref]

Unterboarsch, G.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van der Spiegel, J.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Vivien, L.

Voigt, K.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Webster, M.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Wei, J. L.

Westbergh, P.

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 49(15), 953–955 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, I.

Wilson, W.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Yao, J.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, K. H.

Zimmermann, L.

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 49(15), 953–955 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 885–894 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Ronneberg, and M. Martinelli, “1.3-μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for Metro Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error-free at 40 Gb/s up to 85,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, H.-G. Bach, K. Voigt, A. Beling, M. Nielsen, R. Ludwig, J. Bruns, and G. Unterboarsch, “Integrated receivers on silicon-on-insulator for advanced modulation formats,” IET Optoelectron. 5(5), 211–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. (2)

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064018 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Boffi, A. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (12)

Y. Tsunoda, M. Sugawara, H. Oku, S. Ide, and K. Tanaka, “Twenty-five gigabit per second transmitter using pre-emphasis,” SPIE Newsroom (2012).

M. Muller, C. Grasse, and M. C. Amann, “InP-based 1.3 μm and 1.55 μm short-cavity VCSELs suitable for telecom- and datacom-applications,” in Proc. International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2012), paper Mo.B4.2.

N. Quadir, P. Ossieur, and P. Townsend, “A 56Gb/s PAM-4 VCSEL driver circuit,” in Proc. IET Irish Signals & Systems Conference (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE, p802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet task force. Available on line: http://www.ieee802.org/3/ba/

D. Brown, “NRZ vs. PAM-N for 400GbE in the data center, ” Ethernet Summit 2013. Available online: http://www.ethernetsummit.com/English/Conference/Proceedings_Chrono.html , April 2013.

F. Karinou, R. Rodes, K. Prince, I. Roudas, and I. T. Monroy, “IM/DD vs. 4-PAM using a 1550-nm VCSEL over short-range SMF/MMF links for optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), paper OW4A.2.
[Crossref]

S. Assefa, H. Pan, S. Shank, W. Green, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, M. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, E. Kiewra, T. Topuria, P. Rice, C. W. Baks, and Y. Vlasov, “Monolithically integrated silicon nanophotonics receiver in 90nm CMOS technology node,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), paper OM2H.4.
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conference (2013), 128–129.

Optsim product overview. Available online: http://optics.synopsys.com/rsoft/rsoft-system-network-optsim.html .

C. Menolfi, J. Hertle, T. Toifl, T. Morf, D. Gardellini, M. Braendli, P. Buchmann, and M. Kossel, “A 28Gb/s source-series terminated TX in 32nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2012), 334–336.
[Crossref]

C. Menolfi, T. Toifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 25Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90nm CMOS SOI,” in Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (2005), 72–73.
[Crossref]

J. Proesel, B. G. Lee, C. W. Baks, and C. Schow, “35-Gb/s VCSELBased optical link using 32-nm SOI CMOS circuits,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), paper OM2H.2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 BER vs received optical power in BTB for OOK modulation in case of 850-nm VCSEL-based solution.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 BER vs received optical power in BTB for 4-PAM modulation in case of 850-nm VCSEL-based solution. Simulated received eye diagrams at 80 Gb/s with and without pre-emphasis are reported in the insets.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 BER vs received optical power at 50 Gb/s at different SMF propagation distances in case of 1550-nm and 1310-nm VCSEL-based solution with 4-PAM modulation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 BER vs received optical power at 50 Gb/s at different SMF propagation distances in case of SP-based solution with OOK and 4-PAM modulation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Energy efficiency of VCSEL and SP-based links at 25-Gb/s bit rate

Metrics