Abstract

The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of using stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

H. Purwar, S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, D. Sedarsky, and J.-B. Blaisot, “Collinear, two-color optical Kerr effect shutter for ultrafast time-resolved imaging,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15778–15790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of x-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: a review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” Atomiz. Spray 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

D. A. Walko, D. A. Arms, A. Miceli, and A. L. Kastengren, “Empirical dead-time corrections for energy-resolving detectors at synchrotron sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 649(1), 81–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of x-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. J. Wang, K. S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” Atomiz. Spray 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).

2007 (1)

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

2003 (1)

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propul. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).

1971 (1)

D. T. Campbell, S. D. Clapp, R. L. Proffit, and G. L. Cline, “Reactive stream separation photography,” AIAA J. 9(9), 1832–1836 (1971).
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arms, D. A.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walko, D. A. Arms, A. Miceli, and A. L. Kastengren, “Empirical dead-time corrections for energy-resolving detectors at synchrotron sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 649(1), 81–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ashgriz, N.

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propul. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Berrocal, E.

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blaisot, J.-B.

Brocklehurst, W.

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propul. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Campbell, D. T.

D. T. Campbell, S. D. Clapp, R. L. Proffit, and G. L. Cline, “Reactive stream separation photography,” AIAA J. 9(9), 1832–1836 (1971).
[Crossref]

Charalampous, G.

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Clapp, S. D.

D. T. Campbell, S. D. Clapp, R. L. Proffit, and G. L. Cline, “Reactive stream separation photography,” AIAA J. 9(9), 1832–1836 (1971).
[Crossref]

Cline, G. L.

D. T. Campbell, S. D. Clapp, R. L. Proffit, and G. L. Cline, “Reactive stream separation photography,” AIAA J. 9(9), 1832–1836 (1971).
[Crossref]

De Carlo, F.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Dufresne, E. M.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of x-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eng, P. J.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Erdman, M.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Fezzaa, K.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Gibson, H.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halls, B. R.

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of x-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hardalupas, Y.

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heindel, T. J.

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of x-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” Atomiz. Spray 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Idlahcen, S.

Ilavsky, J.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Im, K. S.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. J. Wang, K. S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” Atomiz. Spray 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).

Jemian, P.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Jung, K.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kastengren, A. L.

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of x-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of x-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walko, D. A. Arms, A. Miceli, and A. L. Kastengren, “Empirical dead-time corrections for energy-resolving detectors at synchrotron sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 649(1), 81–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. J. Wang, K. S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” Atomiz. Spray 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).

Koh, H.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kristensson, E.

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Linne, M.

M. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: a review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Long, G.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Meyer, T. R.

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of x-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miceli, A.

D. A. Walko, D. A. Arms, A. Miceli, and A. L. Kastengren, “Empirical dead-time corrections for energy-resolving detectors at synchrotron sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 649(1), 81–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Newville, M.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Poola, R.

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powell, C. F.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of x-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. J. Wang, K. S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” Atomiz. Spray 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proffit, R. L.

D. T. Campbell, S. D. Clapp, R. L. Proffit, and G. L. Cline, “Reactive stream separation photography,” AIAA J. 9(9), 1832–1836 (1971).
[Crossref]

Purwar, H.

Richter, M.

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rivers, M. L.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Rozé, C.

Sedarsky, D.

Shen, Q.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdman, and G. Long, “Dedicated full-field x-ray imaging beamline at advanced photon source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).

Sutton, S. R.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Talley, D.

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propul. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. M. K. P.

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walko, D. A.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of x-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walko, D. A. Arms, A. Miceli, and A. L. Kastengren, “Empirical dead-time corrections for energy-resolving detectors at synchrotron sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 649(1), 81–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. J. Wang, K. S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” Atomiz. Spray 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. J.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. J. Wang, K. S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” Atomiz. Spray 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).

Wellander, R.

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T.

T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” Atomiz. Spray 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

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G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
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T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” Atomiz. Spray 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. J. Wang, K. S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” Atomiz. Spray 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).

Int. J. Multiph. Flow (1)

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of x-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(6), 356–360 (2000).
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R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Orthogonal backlit visible-light images of impinging jet spray and (b) methodology for measuring equivalent path length (EPL) from x-ray attenuation and fluorescence. Reabsorption path length (RPL) used to correct for fluorescence signal trapping. Dashed arrow in (a) indicates x-ray beam path.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Stereographic reconstruction of the spray at a single z-slice used to estimate the reabsorption path length, (b) fluorescence spectrum used to determine the ratio of signals for reabsorption, and (c) ratio of Zn:Ni signals, and Cu:Co signals to determine the reabsorption path length along the minor axis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Line plots of the equivalent path length (EPL) across a single jet −1.5 mm upstream of impingement comparing the (a) stereo and (b) four-salt correction methods. The Cu signal before corrections for reabsorption significantly underestimate the EPL measured via attenuation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EPL across spray using the (a) stereo and (b) four-salt correction methods at −0.5 mm upstream of impingement and 0.5 mm and 2 mm below impingement.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Errors in fluorescence EPL measurements. Origin in z-location taken as approximate point of jet impingement.

Equations (3)

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I ( y , z ) I 0 ( y , z ) = e μ ( x , y , z ) d x = e μ E P L
R s a l t ( x ) = 1 N m ( x , y ) M e μ s a l t R P L ( x , y )
M C u A ( x ) R C u ( x ) F C u ( x ) d x = M Z n A ( x ) R Z n ( x ) F Z n ( x ) d x = 0.5 E P L ( x ) d x

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