Abstract

We experimentally verify the advantage of employing advanced coding schemes such as space-time coding and 4 dimensional modulation formats to enhance the transmission performance of a 3-mode transmission system. The performance gain of space-time block codes for extending the optical signal-to-noise ratio tolerance in multiple-input multiple-output optical coherent spatial division multiplexing transmission systems with respect to single-mode transmission performance are evaluated. By exploiting the spatial diversity that few-mode-fibers offer, with respect to single mode fiber back-to-back performance, significant OSNR gains of 3.2, 4.1, 4.9, and 6.8 dB at the hard-decision forward error correcting limit are demonstrated for DP-QPSK 8, 16 and 32 QAM, respectively. Furthermore, by employing 4D constellations, 6 × 28Gbaud 128 set partitioned quadrature amplitude modulation is shown to outperform conventional 8 QAM transmission performance, whilst carrying an additional 0.5 bit/symbol.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

2013 (3)

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “305Tb/s Space Division Multiplexed Transmission Using Homogeneous 19-Core Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 554–562 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Single DPLL Joint Carrier Phase Compensation for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1381–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, J. W. Nicholson, D. Jakobsen, K. G. Jespersen, R. Lingle, and B. Palsdottir, “Few Mode Transmission Fiber with Low DGD, Low Mode Coupling, and Low Loss,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(23), 3693–3698 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ellis, “The Nonlinear Shannon limit and The Need for New Fibres,” Proc. SPIE 8434, 84340H (2012).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Savory, “Digital Coherent Optical Receivers: Algorithms and Subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

1999 (1)

V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-Time Block Codes from Orthogonal Designs,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45(5), 1456–1467 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(8), 1451–1458 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. J. Foschini, “Layered Space-Time Architecture for Wireless Communications in a Fading Environment When Using Multi-Element Antennas,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 1(2), 41–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, “Sphere packings, lattices and groups,” Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 21(1), 1 (1989).

1982 (1)

G. Ungerboeck, “Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28(1), 55–67 (1982).
[Crossref]

Agrell, E.

Alamouti, S. M.

S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(8), 1451–1458 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amezcua Correa, R.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antonio Lopez, E.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Awaji, Y.

Calderbank, A. R.

V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-Time Block Codes from Orthogonal Designs,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45(5), 1456–1467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, H. Chen, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Time domain multiplexed spatial division multiplexing receiver,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12668–12677 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Conway, J. H.

J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, “Sphere packings, lattices and groups,” Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 21(1), 1 (1989).

de Waardt, H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, H. Chen, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Time domain multiplexed spatial division multiplexing receiver,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12668–12677 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. Sleiffer, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “MIMO equalization with adaptive step size for few-mode fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Express 22(1), 119–126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Single DPLL Joint Carrier Phase Compensation for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1381–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis, “The Nonlinear Shannon limit and The Need for New Fibres,” Proc. SPIE 8434, 84340H (2012).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

Foschini, G. J.

G. J. Foschini, “Layered Space-Time Architecture for Wireless Communications in a Fading Environment When Using Multi-Element Antennas,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 1(2), 41–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Huijskens, F. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Imamura, K.

Inaba, H.

Jafarkhani, H.

V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-Time Block Codes from Orthogonal Designs,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45(5), 1456–1467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, D.

Jespersen, K. G.

Kanno, A.

Karlsson, M.

Kawanishi, T.

Klaus, W.

Kobayashi, T.

Koonen, A. M. J.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. Sleiffer, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “MIMO equalization with adaptive step size for few-mode fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Express 22(1), 119–126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, H. Chen, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Time domain multiplexed spatial division multiplexing receiver,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12668–12677 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Single DPLL Joint Carrier Phase Compensation for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1381–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koonen, T.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh, T. Matsui, T. Sakamoto, M. Koshiba, and S. Tomita, “Multicore hole assisted fibrs for high core density space division multiplexing,” 15th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 164–165 (2010).

Kuschnerov, M.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Single DPLL Joint Carrier Phase Compensation for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1381–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lingle, R.

Matsui, T.

K. Saitoh, T. Matsui, T. Sakamoto, M. Koshiba, and S. Tomita, “Multicore hole assisted fibrs for high core density space division multiplexing,” 15th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 164–165 (2010).

Mukasa, K.

Nicholson, J. W.

O’Brien, P.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Okonkwo, C. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. Sleiffer, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “MIMO equalization with adaptive step size for few-mode fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Express 22(1), 119–126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, H. Chen, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Time domain multiplexed spatial division multiplexing receiver,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12668–12677 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Single DPLL Joint Carrier Phase Compensation for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1381–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

Palsdottir, B.

Puttnam, B. J.

Raz, O.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

K. Saitoh, T. Matsui, T. Sakamoto, M. Koshiba, and S. Tomita, “Multicore hole assisted fibrs for high core density space division multiplexing,” 15th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 164–165 (2010).

Sakaguchi, J.

Sakamoto, T.

K. Saitoh, T. Matsui, T. Sakamoto, M. Koshiba, and S. Tomita, “Multicore hole assisted fibrs for high core density space division multiplexing,” 15th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 164–165 (2010).

Savory, S.

S. Savory, “Digital Coherent Optical Receivers: Algorithms and Subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schulzgen, A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schulzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multi-core fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sleiffer, V.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sleiffer, V. A.

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, H. de Waardt, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Single DPLL Joint Carrier Phase Compensation for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1381–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sloane, N. J. A.

J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, “Sphere packings, lattices and groups,” Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 21(1), 1 (1989).

Snyder, B.

H. Chen, V. Sleiffer, B. Snyder, M. Kuschnerov, R. van Uden, J. Yongmin, C. M. Okonkwo, O. Raz, P. O’Brien, H. de Waardt, and T. Koonen, “Employing prism based three-spot mode couplers for high capacity MDM/WDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2474–2477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sugizaki, R.

Sun, Y.

Tarokh, V.

V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-Time Block Codes from Orthogonal Designs,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45(5), 1456–1467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tkach, R. W.

R.-J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tomita, S.

K. Saitoh, T. Matsui, T. Sakamoto, M. Koshiba, and S. Tomita, “Multicore hole assisted fibrs for high core density space division multiplexing,” 15th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 164–165 (2010).

Ungerboeck, G.

G. Ungerboeck, “Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28(1), 55–67 (1982).
[Crossref]

van Uden, R.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmitted QAM constellations (a) QPSK, (b) 8, (c) 16 and (d) 32QAM.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental three mode few-mode fiber transmission system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Space and time allocation for FMF transmission blocks showing (A) 6 channels [25] (B) 3 channels, (C) 2 channels, and (D) 1 transmitted channel. The first and second number denotes i th transmitted channel of the j th time slot respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission performance for 6, 3, 2 and 1 channel using space-turbo coding for (A): QPSK, (B):8QAM, (C):16QAM and (D): 32QAM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Two-step set partitioning of the 16QAM constellation on even or odd parity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The time slot and parity bit allocation for 2D and 4D constellations.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 OSNR performance for (A) 2D constellations, and (B) 4D constellations. The 4D constellations are closer to their respective BTB transmission performance.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 FMF characteristics.

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Table 2 SMF Back-to-back a transmission OSNR penalties with respect to the theoretical limit. In addition, OSNR values is summarized for 6, 3 and 2 channels at the HD-FEC limit (the OSNR gain with respect to SMF BTB is in brackets)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Back-to-back and 6 × 6 MIMO transmission OSNR penalties with respect to the theoretical limit. In brackets are the OSNR values for BTB and the 6 × 6 transmission case at the HD-FEC limit.

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