Abstract

Optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses in the Ge-Sb-Se ternary system are investigated at mid-infrared wavelengths (2000 and 2500 nm) with femtosecond Z-scan technique. Strong nonlinear refraction in the chalcogenide glasses is observed at 2000 nm, due to three-photon absorption resonance. In addition, the variation in the nonlinear refraction (γ) of the Ge-Sb-Se glasses shows two jumpoints as mean co-ordination number (MCN) approaches 2.4 or 2.7, consistent with the theoretical predication.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(29), 3468–3472 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Prasad, C.-J. Zha, R.-P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Nonlinear optics in glasses: How can we analyze?” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68(5-6), 896–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2001 (2)

M. M. Wakkad, E. K. Shokr, and S. H. Mohamed, “Crystallization kinetics and some physical properties of as-prepared and annealed Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(2), 399–411 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

1992 (1)

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

J. A. Savage, P. J. Webber, and A. M. Pitt, “An assessment of Ge-Sb-Se glasses as 8 to 12μm infra-red optical materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 13(4), 859–864 (1978).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Arnold, C. B.

Barthélémy, A.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baudet, E.

Berlatier, W.

G. Boudebs, W. Berlatier, S. Cherukulappurath, F. Smektala, M. Guignard, and J. Troles, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses at telecommunication wavelength using nonlinear imaging technique,” in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks(2004), pp. 145–150.
[Crossref]

Besse, V.

Boidin, R.

Boudebs, G.

M. Olivier, J. C. Tchahame, P. Němec, M. Chauvet, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, G. Boudebs, G. Renversez, R. Boidin, E. Baudet, and V. Nazabal, “Structure, nonlinear properties, and photosensitivity of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(3), 525–540 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Boudebs, W. Berlatier, S. Cherukulappurath, F. Smektala, M. Guignard, and J. Troles, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses at telecommunication wavelength using nonlinear imaging technique,” in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks(2004), pp. 145–150.
[Crossref]

Carlie, N.

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cassagne, C.

Chauvet, M.

Chen, H.

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(29), 3468–3472 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheong, S. W.

Cherukulappurath, S.

G. Boudebs, W. Berlatier, S. Cherukulappurath, F. Smektala, M. Guignard, and J. Troles, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses at telecommunication wavelength using nonlinear imaging technique,” in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks(2004), pp. 145–150.
[Crossref]

Couderc, V.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Dai, S.

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(29), 3468–3472 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Fan, Y.-X.

Fang, L.

W.-H. Wei, R.-P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between structural and physical properties in Ge–Sb–Se glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gai, X.

Gaylord, S.

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gopal, E. S. R.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

Gu, B.

Guignard, M.

G. Boudebs, W. Berlatier, S. Cherukulappurath, F. Smektala, M. Guignard, and J. Troles, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses at telecommunication wavelength using nonlinear imaging technique,” in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks(2004), pp. 145–150.
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

J. Hu, J. Meyer, K. Richardson, and L. Shah, “Feature issue introduction: mid-IR photonic materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1571–1575 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

Ji, W.

T. Wang, N. Venkatram, J. Gosciniak, Y. Cui, G. Qian, W. Ji, and D. T. H. Tan, “Multi-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearity in silicon at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32192–32198 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys, B-Lasers O. 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Katsufuji, T.

Kimerling, L.

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lenz, G.

Li, H. P.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys, B-Lasers O. 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lines, M. E.

Lucas, J.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Madhusoodanan, K. N.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massera, J.

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

Miller, R. C.

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964).
[Crossref]

Mohamed, S. H.

M. M. Wakkad, E. K. Shokr, and S. H. Mohamed, “Crystallization kinetics and some physical properties of as-prepared and annealed Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(2), 399–411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nazabal, V.

Nemec, P.

Nie, Q.

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(29), 3468–3472 (2008).
[Crossref]

Olivier, M.

Petit, B. L.

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Philip, J.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitt, A. M.

J. A. Savage, P. J. Webber, and A. M. Pitt, “An assessment of Ge-Sb-Se glasses as 8 to 12μm infra-red optical materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 13(4), 859–864 (1978).
[Crossref]

Prasad, A.

Qian, G.

Quémard, C.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[Crossref]

Renversez, G.

Richardson, K.

J. Hu, J. Meyer, K. Richardson, and L. Shah, “Feature issue introduction: mid-IR photonic materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1571–1575 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

B. L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J. S.

Savage, J. A.

J. A. Savage, P. J. Webber, and A. M. Pitt, “An assessment of Ge-Sb-Se glasses as 8 to 12μm infra-red optical materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 13(4), 859–864 (1978).
[Crossref]

Shah, L.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, X.

T. Wang, X. Gai, W. Wei, R. Wang, Z. Yang, X. Shen, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Systematic z-scan measurements of the third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1011–1022 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Wei, R.-P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between structural and physical properties in Ge–Sb–Se glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(29), 3468–3472 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shokr, E. K.

M. M. Wakkad, E. K. Shokr, and S. H. Mohamed, “Crystallization kinetics and some physical properties of as-prepared and annealed Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(2), 399–411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Slusher, R. E.

Smektala, F.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Boudebs, W. Berlatier, S. Cherukulappurath, F. Smektala, M. Guignard, and J. Troles, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses at telecommunication wavelength using nonlinear imaging technique,” in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks(2004), pp. 145–150.
[Crossref]

Smith, A.

Spälter, S.

Srinivasan, A.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, D. T. H.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “Nonlinear optics in glasses: How can we analyze?” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68(5-6), 896–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, S. H.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys, B-Lasers O. 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tchahame, J. C.

Troles, J.

G. Boudebs, W. Berlatier, S. Cherukulappurath, F. Smektala, M. Guignard, and J. Troles, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses at telecommunication wavelength using nonlinear imaging technique,” in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks(2004), pp. 145–150.
[Crossref]

Tsay, C.

Ung, B.

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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. M. Wakkad, E. K. Shokr, and S. H. Mohamed, “Crystallization kinetics and some physical properties of as-prepared and annealed Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(2), 399–411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and Their Applications (Springer, 2007).

G. Boudebs, W. Berlatier, S. Cherukulappurath, F. Smektala, M. Guignard, and J. Troles, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses at telecommunication wavelength using nonlinear imaging technique,” in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks(2004), pp. 145–150.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Absorption spectra of the CSb glass series (a) and VSb glass series (b) as well as As2Se3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 CA and OA Z-scans of the ChGs in molar composition of 20Ge−10Sb−70Se at 1550 nm (a) and (d); at 2000 nm (b) and (e); and at 2500 nm (c) and (f), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Nonlinear refraction (γ) versus mean co-ordination numbers (MCN) of the CSb glass series and As2Se3
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Plotting of ln(1-TOA) versus lnI0, slope of 2 confirms three photon absorption.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Composition, optical band gap (Eopg) and mean coordination number (MCN) of glasses in this study.

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Table 2 Nonlinear optical parameters of the chalcogenide glasses measured at 1550, 2000 and 2500 nm.

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