Abstract

Lasing from whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators occurs omnidirectional in azimuthal plane. Most applications of WGM resonators require spectral analysis with off-chip detectors, where in-plane emission and beam divergence hinder efficient detection. We demonstrate redirecting WGM laser emission from all azimuthal angles using a circular micromirror placed around the cavity. By collecting reflections off the micromirror via free-space optics, read-out intensity improved by one order of magnitude. Blocking vertically emitted spontaneous emission and recording reflections off the micromirror only, signal-to-noise ratio improved from 4.6 dB to 15 dB. Our read-out concept may be applied to arbitrary WGM cavity geometries without deteriorating the cavity’s quality factor.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Mehrabani, P. Kwong, M. Gupta, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid microcavity humidity sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harker, S. Mehrabani, and A. M. Armani, “Ultraviolet light detection using an optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3422–3425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Unidirectional light emission from high-Q modes in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031802 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1958 (1)

A. Schawlow and C. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Akbulut, D.

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Armani, A. M.

S. Mehrabani, P. Kwong, M. Gupta, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid microcavity humidity sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harker, S. Mehrabani, and A. M. Armani, “Ultraviolet light detection using an optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3422–3425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bayindir, M.

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beck, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, T. Beck, M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Direct laser writing for active and passive high-Q polymer microdisks on silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11451–11456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bog, U.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burger, S.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chern, G. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

Christiansen, M. B.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Di Cioccio, L.

Diehl, L.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edamura, T.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eschenbaum, C.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Friedmann, C.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, J.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

Gohn-Kreuz, C.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grossmann, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, T. Beck, M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Direct laser writing for active and passive high-Q polymer microdisks on silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11451–11456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gupta, M.

S. Mehrabani, P. Kwong, M. Gupta, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid microcavity humidity sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harker, A.

Hauser, M.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, T. Beck, M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Direct laser writing for active and passive high-Q polymer microdisks on silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11451–11456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Unidirectional light emission from high-Q modes in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031802 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jacques, F.

Johnson, N. M.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, T. Beck, M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Direct laser writing for active and passive high-Q polymer microdisks on silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11451–11456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kan, H.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karl, M.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiravittaya, S.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, “Lab-in-a-tube: detection of individual mouse cells for analysis in flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensors,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4037–4042 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klinkhammer, S.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Kristensen, A.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwong, P.

S. Mehrabani, P. Kwong, M. Gupta, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid microcavity humidity sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lagahe, C.

Lemmer, U.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mappes, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, T. Beck, M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Direct laser writing for active and passive high-Q polymer microdisks on silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11451–11456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mehrabani, S.

S. Mehrabani, P. Kwong, M. Gupta, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid microcavity humidity sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harker, S. Mehrabani, and A. M. Armani, “Ultraviolet light detection using an optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3422–3425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, Y.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, “Lab-in-a-tube: detection of individual mouse cells for analysis in flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensors,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4037–4042 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nienhaus, G. U.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pflügl, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pomplun, J.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Regreny, P.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Sanchez, S.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, “Lab-in-a-tube: detection of individual mouse cells for analysis in flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensors,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4037–4042 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schawlow, A.

A. Schawlow and C. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Schleede, S.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, T. Beck, M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Direct laser writing for active and passive high-Q polymer microdisks on silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11451–11456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, F.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O. G.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, “Lab-in-a-tube: detection of individual mouse cells for analysis in flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensors,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4037–4042 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulze, S.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, “Lab-in-a-tube: detection of individual mouse cells for analysis in flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensors,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4037–4042 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

Smith, E. J.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, “Lab-in-a-tube: detection of individual mouse cells for analysis in flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensors,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4037–4042 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, S.

Thiel, M.

Toubaru, K.

Townes, C.

A. Schawlow and C. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tureci, H. E.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

Unterhinninghofen, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vannahme, C.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Verstuyft, S.

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

Wang, Q. J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wienhold, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wiersig, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Unidirectional light emission from high-Q modes in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031802 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.-F.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, M.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zschiedrich, L.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Mehrabani, P. Kwong, M. Gupta, and A. M. Armani, “Hybrid microcavity humidity sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tulek, D. Akbulut, and M. Bayindir, “Ultralow threshold laser action from toroidal polymer microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203302 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, “Lab-in-a-tube: detection of individual mouse cells for analysis in flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensors,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4037–4042 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Schawlow and C. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Unidirectional light emission from high-Q modes in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031802 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, “Adaptive finite element method for simulation of optical nano structures,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3419–3434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, L. He, C.-H. Dong, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, F.-W. Sun, L. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Highly unidirectional emission and ultralow-threshold lasing from on-chip ultrahigh-Q microcavities,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP260–4, OP185 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 FEM simulation of the electric field distribution (TE mode) of a microgoblet resonator: (a) Computational domain including the cross section of the modeled cavity, materials and screens. A perfectly matched layer surrounding the cavity is used to enable transparent boundary conditions. (d) Simulated electric field distribution of the fundamental TE mode at 623.8 nm. The plotted area is highlighted in (a) by the dotted rectangle. (b) and (c) show the intensity distribution along the screens positioned on top and the left side of (d), respectively. The grey dotted lines highlight the vertical and horizontal position of the field maximum of the WGM. It is noted that all field amplitudes are plotted on a logarithmic scale.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the micromirror read-out concept: The microgoblet laser is pumped through an objective from the top (yellow). Emission occurs omnidirectional in azimuthal direction but is confined in vertical direction. Emission from all azimuthal angles is reflected from the angled mirror surface vertical to the substrate and is collected with the objective (red).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sketch of fabrication process: PMMA microgoblet lasers were fabricated via spin coating, electron beam exposure, isotropic etching with XeF2, and subsequent thermal reflow. Micromirrors were imprinted into COC foils and angled surfaces were coated with aluminum through a shadow mask. After alignment, both substrates were agglutinated using UV-curable adhesive.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM of microgoblet laser on double pedestal. The light-guiding rim of the resonator is elevated about 80 µm above the substrate surface using two aligned electron beam exposures followed by selective etching with XeF2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Microresonator characterization setup, (b) Spatial control of imaged field of view via iris diaphragm (positioned inside of red box in (a)). Right (Aperture fully open): Light from microgoblet and micromirror enters the spectrometer entrance slit. A removable pin can be inserted to block emission from the microgoblet. Left (Aperture closed): Only light from microgoblet can enter spectrometer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Microgoblet laser threshold curve at 623.78 nm with threshold energy Eth = 1.5 nJ. Data points below and above threshold are marked in blue and red, respectively. (b) Plot of spatially resolved spectrum along the spectrometer entrance slit. Reflection of lasing emission off the upper and lower mirror surface can be a seen as localized spectral peaks.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of lasing spectra recorded with (blue) and without the micromirror (black): By detecting emission from microgoblet and micromirror simultaneously, the laser intensity can be increased by up to 9.7 compared to read-out without a mirror. Blocking the direct emission from the microgoblet and recording the reflections from the micromirror only (red), yields an increase in SNR of up to 15 dB (both measured at λ = 623.78 nm).

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