Abstract

The geometry and dimension design is the most critical part for the success in nano-photonic devices. The choices of the geometrical parameters dramatically affect the device performance. Most of the time, simulation is conducted to locate the suitable geometry, but in many cases simulation can be ineffective. The most pronounced examples are large-area randomized patterns for solar cells, light emitting diode (LED), and thermophtovoltaics (TPV). The large random pattern is nearly impossible to calculate and optimize due to the extended CPU runtime and the memory limitation. Other scenarios that numerical simulations become ineffective include three-dimensional complex structures with anisotropic dielectric response. This leads to extended simulation time especially for the repeated runs during its geometry optimization. In this paper, we show that by incorporating genetic algorithm (GA) into real-world experiments, shortened trial-and-error time can be achieved. More importantly, this scheme can be used for many photonic design problems that are unsuitable for simulation-based optimizations. Moreover, the experimentally implemented genetic algorithm (Exp-GA) has the additional advantage that the resultant objective value is a real one rather than a theoretical one. This prevents the gaps between the modeling and the fabrication due to the process variation or inaccurate numerical models. Using TPV emitters as an example, 22% enhancement in the mean objective value is achieved.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  47. Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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2014 (8)

J. Foley, S. Young, and J. Phillips, “Symmetry-protected mode coupling near normal incidence for narrow-band transmission filtering in a dielectric grating,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165111 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, T. F. Jaramillo, and S. Fan, “Nearly total Solar absorption in ultrathin nanostructured iron oxide for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 235–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nam, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, P. Bermel, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 122, 287–296 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (10)

J. Ma, L. J. Martínez, S. Fan, and M. L. Povinelli, “Tight-binding calculation of radiation loss in photonic crystal CROW,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2463–2473 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, F. Pratesi, K. Vynck, M. Prasciolu, M. Tormen, and D. S. Wiersma, “Two-dimensional disorder for broadband, omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive absorption,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A268–A275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pratesi, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, K. Vynck, and D. S. Wiersma, “Disordered photonic structures for light harvesting in solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A460–A468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Baac, T. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Micro-ultrasonic cleaving of cell clusters by laser-generated focused ultrasound and its mechanisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1442–1450 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Broadband light trapping with disordered photonic structures in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22, 1237–1245 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. B. Turner-Evans, C. T. Chen, H. Emmer, W. E. McMahon, and H. A. Atwater, “Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014501 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Accounting for localized defects in the optoelectronic design of thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 599–604 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hänni, G. Bugnon, G. Parascandolo, M. Boccard, J. Escarré, M. Despeisse, F. Meillaud, and C. Ballif, “High-efficiency microcrystalline silicon single-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 821–826 (2013).

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Karagodsky and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Physics of near-wavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10888–10895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Foley, A. M. Itsuno, T. Das, S. Velicu, and J. D. Phillips, “Broadband long-wavelength infrared Si/SiO2 subwavelength grating reflector,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1523–1525 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optimization-based design of surface textures for thin-film Si solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A841–A850 (2011).
[PubMed]

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optimal design of aperiodic, vertical silicon nanowire structures for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1148–A1154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011106 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16973–16988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bermel, M. Ghebrebrhan, W. Chan, Y. X. Yeng, M. Araghchini, R. Hamam, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and I. Celanovic, “Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A314–A334 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Lin and J. D. Phillips, “Optimization of random diffraction gratings in thin-film solar cells using genetic algorithms,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 92(12), 1689–1696 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, “Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 67(20), 205402 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Nelson, “A brief history of thermophotovoltaic development,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S141–S143 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alexander, D. T.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Accounting for localized defects in the optoelectronic design of thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 599–604 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Broadband light trapping with disordered photonic structures in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22, 1237–1245 (2013).
[Crossref]

Araghchini, M.

Atwater, H. A.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Accounting for localized defects in the optoelectronic design of thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 599–604 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. B. Turner-Evans, C. T. Chen, H. Emmer, W. E. McMahon, and H. A. Atwater, “Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014501 (2013).
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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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P. N. Saeta, V. E. Ferry, D. Pacifici, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?” Opt. Express 17(23), 20975–20990 (2009).
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Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
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Baac, H. W.

Ballif, C.

S. Hänni, G. Bugnon, G. Parascandolo, M. Boccard, J. Escarré, M. Despeisse, F. Meillaud, and C. Ballif, “High-efficiency microcrystalline silicon single-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 821–826 (2013).

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
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Barraud, L.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Bermel, P.

Y. Nam, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, P. Bermel, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 122, 287–296 (2014).
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P. Bermel, M. Ghebrebrhan, W. Chan, Y. X. Yeng, M. Araghchini, R. Hamam, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and I. Celanovic, “Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A314–A334 (2010).
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Bierman, D. M.

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
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V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

Billet, A.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Boccard, M.

S. Hänni, G. Bugnon, G. Parascandolo, M. Boccard, J. Escarré, M. Despeisse, F. Meillaud, and C. Ballif, “High-efficiency microcrystalline silicon single-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 821–826 (2013).

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Bottler, W.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
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A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Broadband light trapping with disordered photonic structures in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22, 1237–1245 (2013).
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Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, T. F. Jaramillo, and S. Fan, “Nearly total Solar absorption in ultrathin nanostructured iron oxide for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 235–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bugnon, G.

S. Hänni, G. Bugnon, G. Parascandolo, M. Boccard, J. Escarré, M. Despeisse, F. Meillaud, and C. Ballif, “High-efficiency microcrystalline silicon single-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 821–826 (2013).

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Burresi, M.

Cantoni, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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Carius, R.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
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U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
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Celanovic, I.

Y. Nam, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, P. Bermel, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 122, 287–296 (2014).
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J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
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V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
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P. Bermel, M. Ghebrebrhan, W. Chan, Y. X. Yeng, M. Araghchini, R. Hamam, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and I. Celanovic, “Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A314–A334 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W.

Chan, W. R.

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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Chattopadhyay, S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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Chen, C. T.

D. B. Turner-Evans, C. T. Chen, H. Emmer, W. E. McMahon, and H. A. Atwater, “Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014501 (2013).
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Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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Chen, Z.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
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J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
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Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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De Wolf, S.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Deceglie, M. G.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Accounting for localized defects in the optoelectronic design of thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 599–604 (2013).
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Deng, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
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E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
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Despeisse, M.

S. Hänni, G. Bugnon, G. Parascandolo, M. Boccard, J. Escarré, M. Despeisse, F. Meillaud, and C. Ballif, “High-efficiency microcrystalline silicon single-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 821–826 (2013).

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Ding, L.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Emmer, H.

D. B. Turner-Evans, C. T. Chen, H. Emmer, W. E. McMahon, and H. A. Atwater, “Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014501 (2013).
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Erni, L.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Escarré, J.

S. Hänni, G. Bugnon, G. Parascandolo, M. Boccard, J. Escarré, M. Despeisse, F. Meillaud, and C. Ballif, “High-efficiency microcrystalline silicon single-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 821–826 (2013).

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
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Fan, S.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, T. F. Jaramillo, and S. Fan, “Nearly total Solar absorption in ultrathin nanostructured iron oxide for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 235–240 (2014).
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J. Ma, L. J. Martínez, S. Fan, and M. L. Povinelli, “Tight-binding calculation of radiation loss in photonic crystal CROW,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2463–2473 (2013).
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Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011106 (2011).
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Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
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C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
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Fang, N. X.

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Accounting for localized defects in the optoelectronic design of thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 599–604 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. N. Saeta, V. E. Ferry, D. Pacifici, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?” Opt. Express 17(23), 20975–20990 (2009).
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J. Foley, S. Young, and J. Phillips, “Symmetry-protected mode coupling near normal incidence for narrow-band transmission filtering in a dielectric grating,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165111 (2014).
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Foley, J. M.

Fu, S.-M.

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
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Fung, K. H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
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Gan, Q.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
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Geil, R. D.

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

Ghebrebrhan, M.

Guo, L. J.

Hagemann, V.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, T. F. Jaramillo, and S. Fan, “Nearly total Solar absorption in ultrathin nanostructured iron oxide for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 235–240 (2014).
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Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
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Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, “Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 67(20), 205402 (2003).
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U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
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A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
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U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
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J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
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Scharf, T.

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Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

Y. Nam, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, P. Bermel, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 122, 287–296 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

P. Bermel, M. Ghebrebrhan, W. Chan, Y. X. Yeng, M. Araghchini, R. Hamam, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and I. Celanovic, “Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A314–A334 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, H.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tormen, M.

Tseng, C.-W.

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

D. B. Turner-Evans, C. T. Chen, H. Emmer, W. E. McMahon, and H. A. Atwater, “Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Velicu, S.

Veronis, G.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vynck, K.

Wächter, C.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, E. N.

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nam, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, P. Bermel, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 122, 287–296 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. X.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, T. F. Jaramillo, and S. Fan, “Nearly total Solar absorption in ultrathin nanostructured iron oxide for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 235–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. S.

Xu, J.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeng, Y. X.

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nam, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, P. Bermel, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 122, 287–296 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bermel, M. Ghebrebrhan, W. Chan, Y. X. Yeng, M. Araghchini, R. Hamam, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and I. Celanovic, “Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A314–A334 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, S.

J. Foley, S. Young, and J. Phillips, “Symmetry-protected mode coupling near normal incidence for narrow-band transmission filtering in a dielectric grating,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, T. F. Jaramillo, and S. Fan, “Nearly total Solar absorption in ultrathin nanostructured iron oxide for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 235–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Y.-K.

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, T. F. Jaramillo, and S. Fan, “Nearly total Solar absorption in ultrathin nanostructured iron oxide for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 235–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011106 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Accounting for localized defects in the optoelectronic design of thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 599–604 (2013).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. B. Turner-Evans, C. T. Chen, H. Emmer, W. E. McMahon, and H. A. Atwater, “Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014501 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, L. Erni, L. Ding, G. Bugnon, A. Billet, M. Boccard, L. Barraud, S. De Wolf, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Nanoimprint lithography for high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 661–665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, E. N. Wang, and S.-G. Kim, “Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A144–A154 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optimal design of aperiodic, vertical silicon nanowire structures for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1148–A1154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bermel, M. Ghebrebrhan, W. Chan, Y. X. Yeng, M. Araghchini, R. Hamam, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and I. Celanovic, “Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A314–A334 (2010).
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P. N. Saeta, V. E. Ferry, D. Pacifici, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?” Opt. Express 17(23), 20975–20990 (2009).
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F. Pratesi, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, K. Vynck, and D. S. Wiersma, “Disordered photonic structures for light harvesting in solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A460–A468 (2013).
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M. Burresi, F. Pratesi, K. Vynck, M. Prasciolu, M. Tormen, and D. S. Wiersma, “Two-dimensional disorder for broadband, omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive absorption,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A268–A275 (2013).
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J. Ma, L. J. Martínez, S. Fan, and M. L. Povinelli, “Tight-binding calculation of radiation loss in photonic crystal CROW,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2463–2473 (2013).
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A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
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V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16973–16988 (2010).
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V. Karagodsky and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Physics of near-wavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10888–10895 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

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J. Foley, S. Young, and J. Phillips, “Symmetry-protected mode coupling near normal incidence for narrow-band transmission filtering in a dielectric grating,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165111 (2014).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
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Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Broadband light trapping with disordered photonic structures in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22, 1237–1245 (2013).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
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Science (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Y. Nam, Y. X. Yeng, A. Lenert, P. Bermel, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 122, 287–296 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The side-view of the thermophotovoltaic emitter using HMM metamaterials with a large binary pattern. The pattern is to be optimized by experimental-GA. hg is the etching depth, and d is the length of 1 bit. P is the period of the large random pattern. While P should be made as large as possible to maximize the searching space during optimization and achieve true fully randomized nanostructures, the upper limit of P is usually constrained by the computational resources. Exp-GA is thus necessary to overcome the computational limitation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (Left) the top-view of the hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) stacks, (center) the binary pattern bit mask for a large-area random pattern, and (right) the three-dimensional (3D) view of the HMM stacks.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of the Exp-GA process. The binary bit mask is adjusted in each generation to achieve higher broadband absorbance for photovoltaic applications. The flow chart clearly shows the difference between Exp-GA and conventional computational GA. The real experiment is used to evaluate the objective function in optimization in the case of Exp-GA. This overcomes the computational limitation of a large-area random pattern design. This also eliminates the discrepancy between experiment and simulation due to the problems of model inaccuracy or process deviations. No numerical models are needed.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The process flow of the fabricated HMM stack with a broadband resonant cavity. The straight-sidewall nature is beneficial for large-area TPV applications. The hyperbolic metamaterial is formed by alternating layers of aluminum (Al) and silicon dioxide (SiO2). Noble metals such as Ag, Au, Pt are not necessary for the HMM here. The photonic density of state (PDOS) is significantly boosted by the unbounded hyperbolic dispersion of HMM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The evolution of the binary bit mask during the optimization using Exp-GA. The optimal individual is marked by a dashed red box. The etching depth for this optimal individual is tetch = 315nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The evolution of the spectral absorbance in Exp-GA. The first three generation is conducted in this study. The red line is the worst case individual during this optimization. The yellow line is the best case individual during this optimization. The black line is the average of the 5 individuals in one generation.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The statistics of Exp-GA for the first three generations. The objective value in this optimization is the averaged absorbance from λ = 1μm to λ = 2μm. The mean and the maxima of the objective values in each generation are plotted using the dashed and the solid black line. The scattered red dots are the objective values of the individuals in each generation.

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